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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 2017, Vol. 90(2), pp.258-267
    Description: Trees have developed mechanisms to obtain soil phosphorus from less available and recalcitrant P forms. Therefore, assessments of P availability to trees should consider not only readily plant-available fractions, as is typically done in agriculture, but also fractions of different availability, such as those generated by sequential extraction as suggested by Hedley, M.J., Stewart, J.W.B. and Chauhan, B.S. 1982 Changes in inorganic and organic soil phosphorus fractions induced by cultivation practices and by laboratory incubations. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J . 46 , 970–976. Yet our knowledge about the contribution of these different P fractions to tree nutrition is extremely limited. Here, we assessed the short-term ecological relevance of these Hedley P fractions for tree nutrition using mesocosms with fast growing poplars. Poplar cuttings were planted in P fertilized and control treatments of two forest soils and one agricultural soil. After one growing season, P uptake in plants and changes in Hedley P fractions in soil were quantified. Reductions in total soil P ranged from 2.5 per cent (10 mg kg −1 ) at one forest site to 6.5 per cent (50 mg kg −1 ) at the fertilized agricultural site. The strongest decreases in P content were found in the labile P fractions (up to 30 per cent; −30.4 mg kg −1 in unfertilized agricultural soil) but significant reductions occurred also in moderately labile P fractions (up to 17 per cent; −2.4 mg kg −1 in the forest soil). Our results indicate the importance of these P fractions for tree nutrition in the short term. Additionally, our study showed that the Hedley method can capture these short-term changes in soil P fractions. To advance mesocosm approaches to study the ecological relevance of soil P fractions, future experiments might extend over different seasons and several growing periods and use fast growing tree species such as birch or aspen that are better adapted to poor forest soils.
    Keywords: Forestry;
    ISSN: 0015-752X
    E-ISSN: 1464-3626
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  • 2
    In: Forestry, 2014, Vol. 87(4), pp.492-503
    Description: In many parts of Europe, close-to-nature silviculture (CNS) has been widely advocated as being the best approach for managing forests to cope with future climate change. In this review, we identify and evaluate six principles for enhancing the adaptive capacity of European temperate forests in a changing climate: (1) increase tree species richness, (2) increase structural diversity, (3) maintain and increase genetic variation within tree species, (4) increase resistance of individual trees to biotic and abiotic stress, (5) replace high-risk stands and (6) keep average growing stocks low. We use these principles to examine how three CNS systems (single-tree selection, group selection and shelterwood) serve adaptation strategies. Many attributes of CNS can increase the adaptive capacity of European temperate forests to a changing climate. CNS promotes structural diversity and tree resistance to stressors, and growing stocks can be kept at low levels. However, some deficiencies exist in relation to the adaptation principles of increasing tree species richness, maintaining and increasing genetic variation, and replacing high-risk stands. To address these shortcomings, CNS should make increased use of a range of regeneration methods, in order to promote light-demanding tree species, non-native species and non-local provenances.
    Keywords: Provenance ; Genetic Variation ; Trees ; Temperate Forests ; Shelterwood Systems ; Introduced Species ; Species Diversity ; Climate Change ; Climate ; Abiotic Stress;
    ISSN: 0015-752X
    E-ISSN: 1464-3626
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