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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in plant science, 2015, Vol.6, pp.302
    Description: Competition for nitrogen (N), particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, (15)N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With inter-specific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to inter-specific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with inter-specific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech.
    Keywords: N Pools ; Growth Strategies ; Inorganic N Uptake ; Inter-Specific Competition ; Intra-Specific Competition ; Organic N Uptake ; Specific Amino Acids
    ISSN: 1664-462X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Plant Science, 01 June 2017, Vol.8
    Description: Biotic stress by mass outbreaks of defoliating pest insects does not only affect tree performance by reducing its photosynthetic capacity, but also changes N cycling in the soil of forest ecosystems. However, how insect induced defoliation affects soil N fluxes and, in turn, tree N nutrition is not well-studied. In the present study, we quantified N input and output fluxes via dry matter input, throughfall, and soil leachates. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of mass insect herbivory on tree N acquisition (i.e., organic and inorganic 15N net uptake capacity of fine roots) as well as N pools in fine roots and needles in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over an entire vegetation period. Plots were either infested by the nun moth (Lymantria monacha L.) or served as controls. Our results show an increased N input by insect feces, litter, and throughfall at the infested plots compared to controls, as well as increased leaching of nitrate. However, the additional N input into the soil did not increase, but reduce inorganic and organic net N uptake capacity of Scots pine roots. N pools in the fine roots and needles of infested trees showed an accumulation of total N, amino acid-N, protein-N, and structural N in the roots and the remaining needles as a compensatory response triggered by defoliation. Thus, although soil N availability was increased via surplus N input, trees did not respond with an increased N acquisition, but rather invested resources into defense by accumulation of amino acid-N and protein-N as a survival strategy.
    Keywords: Feces ; Inorganic N ; Litter ; N Fluxes ; Nitrate ; N Metabolites ; Botany
    E-ISSN: 1664-462X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Plant Science, 01 June 2018, Vol.9
    Description: Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important macronutrients limiting plant growth and development, particularly in forest ecosystems such as temperate beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests in Central Europe. Efficient tree internal P cycling during annual growth is an important strategy of beech trees to adapt to low soil-P. Organic P (Porg) is thought to play a decisive role in P cycling, but the significance of individual compounds and processes has not been elucidated. To identify processes and metabolites involved in P cycling of beech trees, polar-metabolome and lipidome profiling was performed during annual growth with twig tissues from a sufficient (Conventwald, Con) and a low-soil-P (Tuttlingen, Tut) forest. Autumnal phospholipid degradation in leaves and P export from senescent leaves, accumulation of phospholipids and glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) in the bark, storage of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc6P) in the wood, and establishing of a phospholipid “start-up capital” in buds constitute main processes involved in P cycling that were enhanced in beech trees on low-P soil of the Tut forest. In spring, mobilization of P from storage pools in the bark contributed to an effective P cycling. Due to the higher phospholipid “start-up capital” in buds of Tut beeches, the P metabolite profile in developing leaves in spring was similar in beech trees of both forests. During summer, leaves of Tut beeches meet their phosphate (Pi) needs by replacing phospholipids by galacto- and sulfolipids. Thus, several processes contribute to adequate Pi supply on P impoverished soil thereby mediating similar growth of beech at low and sufficient soil-P availability.
    Keywords: Phospholipids ; Metabolome ; Phosphorus Nutrition ; Annual Growth ; Whole Plant Nutrition ; Botany
    E-ISSN: 1664-462X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Plant Science, 01 September 2018, Vol.9
    Description: The temperate climax tree species Fagus sylvatica and the floodplain tree species Populus × canescens possess contrasting phosphorus (P) nutrition strategies. While F. sylvatica has been documented to display P storage and mobilization (Netzer et al., 2017), this was not observed for Populus × canescens (Netzer et al., 2018b). Nevertheless, changes in the abundance of organic bound P in gray poplar trees indicated adaptation of the P nutrition to different needs during annual growth. The present study aimed at characterizing seasonal changes in metabolite and lipid abundances in gray poplar and uncovering differences in metabolite requirement due to specific needs depending on the season. Seasonal variations in the abundance of (i) sugar-Ps and phospholipids, (ii) amino acids, (iii) sulfur compounds, and (iv) carbon metabolites were expected. It was hypothesized that seasonal changes in metabolite levels relate to N, S, and C storage and mobilization. Changes in organic metabolites binding Pi (Porg) are supposed to support these processes. Variation in triacylglycerols, in sugar-phosphates, in metabolites of the TCA cycle and in the amino acid abundance of poplar twig buds, leaves, bark, and wood were found to be linked to changes in metabolite abundances as well as to C, N, and S storage and mobilization processes. The observed changes support the view of a lack of any P storage in poplar. Yet, during dormancy, contents of phospholipids in twig bark and wood were highest probably due to frost-hardening and to its function in extra-plastidic membranes such as amyloplasts, oleosomes, and protein bodies. Consistent with this assumption, in spring sugar-Ps increased when phospholipids declined and poplar plants entering the vegetative growth period and, hence, metabolic activity increases. These results indicate that poplar trees adopt a policy of P nutrition without P storage and mobilization that is different from their N- and S-nutrition strategies.
    Keywords: Annual Growth Cycle ; Nutrient Mobilization ; Nutrient Storage ; Phospholipids ; Populus × Canescens ; Botany
    E-ISSN: 1664-462X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Plant Science, Dec 11, 2018
    Description: The aim of present study was to elucidate the significance of the phosphorylated pathway of Ser production for Cys biosynthesis in leaves at day and night and upon cadmium (Cd) exposure. For this purpose, Arabidopsis wildtype plants as control and its psp mutant knocked-down in phosphoserine phosphatase ( PSP ) were used to test if (i) photorespiratory Ser is the dominant precursor of Cys synthesis in autotrophic tissue in the light, (ii) the phosphorylated pathway of Ser production can take over Ser biosynthesis in leaves at night, and (iii) Cd exposure stimulates Cys and glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis and effects the crosstalk of S and N metabolism, irrespective of the Ser source. Glycine (Gly) and Ser contents were not affected by reduction of the psp transcript level confirming that the photorespiratory pathway is the main route of Ser synthesis. The reduction of the PSP transcript level in the mutant did not affect day/night regulation of sulfur fluxes while day/night fluctuation of sulfur metabolite amounts were no longer observed, presumably due to slower turnover of sulfur metabolites in the mutant. Enhanced contents of non-protein thiols in both genotypes and of GSH only in the psp mutant were observed upon Cd treatment. Mutation of the phosphorylated pathway of Ser biosynthesis caused an accumulation of alanine, aspartate, lysine and a decrease of branched-chain amino acids. Knock-down of the PSP gene induced additional defense mechanisms against Cd toxicity that differ from those of WT plants.
    Keywords: Arabidopsis Thaliana – Physiological Aspects ; Phosphatases – Physiological Aspects
    ISSN: 1664-462X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Plant Science, Nov 27, 2018
    Description: This study was aimed at elucidating the significance of photorespiratory serine (Ser) production for cysteine (Cys) biosynthesis. For this purpose, sulfur (S) metabolism and its crosstalk with nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) metabolism were analyzed in wildtype Arabidopsis and its photorespiratory bou-2 mutant with impaired glycine decarboxylase (GDC) activity. Foliar glycine and Ser contents were enhanced in the mutant at day and night. The high Ser levels in the mutant cannot be explained by transcript abundances of genes of the photorespiratory pathway or two alternative pathways of Ser biosynthesis. Despite enhanced foliar Ser, reduced GDC activity mediated a decline in sulfur flux into major sulfur pools in the mutant, as a result of deregulation of genes of sulfur reduction and assimilation. Still, foliar Cys and glutathione contents in the mutant were enhanced. The use of Cys for methionine and glucosinolates synthesis was reduced in the mutant. Reduced GDC activity in the mutant downregulated Calvin Cycle and nitrogen assimilation genes, upregulated key enzymes of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway and modified accumulation of sugars and TCA intermediates. Thus, photorespiratory Ser production can be replaced by other metabolic Ser sources, but this replacement deregulates the cross-talk between S, N, and C metabolism.
    Keywords: Photorespiration – Analysis ; Gene Mutation – Influence ; Arabidopsis Thaliana – Genetic Aspects ; Arabidopsis Thaliana – Composition ; Carbon Fixation – Analysis ; Nitrogen Fixation – Analysis ; Sulfur – Analysis
    ISSN: 1664-462X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Plant Science, April 4, 2019
    Description: The present study elucidated whether roots of temperate forest trees can take up organic phosphorus in the form of ATP. Detached non-mycorrhizal roots of beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) and gray poplar ( Populus x canescens ) were exposed under controlled conditions to 33 P-ATP and/or 13 C/ 15 N labeled ATP in the presence and absence of the acid phosphatase inhibitor MoO 4 2- . Accumulation of the respective label in the roots was used to calculate 33 P, 13 C and 15 N uptake rates in ATP equivalents for comparison reason. The present data shown that a significant part of ATP was cleaved outside the roots before phosphate (P i ) was taken up. Furthermore, nucleotide uptake seems more reasonable after cleavage of at least one P i unit as ADP, AMP and/or as the nucleoside adenosine. Similar results were obtained when still attached mycorrhizal roots of adult beech trees and their natural regeneration of two forest stands were exposed to ATP in the presence or absence of MoO 4 2- . Cleavage of P i from ATP by enzymes commonly present in the rhizosphere, such as extracellular acid phosphatases, ecto-apyrase and/or nucleotidases, prior ADP/AMP/adenosine uptake is highly probable but depended on the soil type and the pH of the soil solution. Although uptake of ATP/ADP/AMP cannot be excluded, uptake of the nucleoside adenosine without breakdown into its constituents ribose and adenine is highly evident. Based on the 33 P, 13 C, and 15 N uptake rates calculated as equivalents of ATP the ‘pro and contra’ for the uptake of nucleotides and nucleosides is discussed. Short Summary Roots take up phosphorus from ATP as P i after cleavage but might also take up ADP and/or AMP by yet unknown nucleotide transporter(s) because at least the nucleoside adenosine as N source is taken up without cleavage into its constituents ribose and adenine.
    Keywords: Phosphatases
    ISSN: 1664-462X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Plant Science, March 26, 2019
    Description: [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01830.].
    Keywords: Cd Treatment ; Amino Acids ; Cysteine ; Glutathione ; Glycine ; Phosphorylated Pathway ; Serine;
    ISSN: 1664-462X
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