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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Geophysical Research Letters, February 2011, Vol.38(3), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: Due to temperature differences of groundwater and streamwater, localized groundwater inflows into small streams can directly be detected with ground‐based thermographic systems in summer or winter. Infrared radiation temperatures of surface water were used to determine mixing length and to calculate the relative fraction of groundwater inflow to downstream discharge. These fractions were comparable to groundwater inflow fractions derived from electrical conductivity, kinetic water temperatures and discharge measurements. This approach advances the immediate detection and quantification of localized groundwater inflow for hydrology, geology and ecology.
    Keywords: Groundwater‐Surface Water Interaction ; Water Temperature ; Infrared Thermography
    ISSN: 0094-8276
    E-ISSN: 1944-8007
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  • 2
    In: Geophysical Research Letters, 16 September 2014, Vol.41(17), pp.6174-6183
    Description: Streamflow drought response depends to a large degree on groundwater recharge. To better predict and preempt streamflow droughts, the relationship between recharge deficit and streamflow response needs to be studied more systematically. We present a combined soil‐vegetation‐atmosphere transfer and conceptual groundwater model experiment that applies a novel set of recharge scenarios preceding drought events in humid‐temperate catchments with different dominant aquifer types. The recharge scenarios are based on the permutation of historical time series and on modified time series matching extreme (50 year) drought events. Karstic and fractured aquifers show short‐term sensitivity to drought with an event‐specific relationship between recharge and streamflow response. Porous and complex aquifers show long‐term sensitivity and a more catchment‐controlled propagation of drought. The sensitivity of drought deficit and recovery time correlates with the water age distribution in baseflow, which is trackable in the groundwater model and a characteristic that should be exploited to improve streamflow drought prediction. Recharge scenarios drive groundwater models to exacerbate streamflow droughtsShort‐ and long‐term sensitivity to drought can be explained by aquifer typesWater age correlates with drought deficit and recovery time
    Keywords: Drought ; Groundwater/Surface Water Interaction ; Modeling ; Water Budgets ; Extreme Events ; Streamflow
    ISSN: 0094-8276
    E-ISSN: 1944-8007
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  • 3
    In: Geophysical Research Letters, 01 September 2019, Vol.46(17-18), pp.10425-10434
    Description: Quantifying the relative contributions of winter versus summer precipitation to streamflow may be important for understanding water‐resource sensitivity to precipitation variability. Here we compare volume‐weighted mean δO values in precipitation and streamflow for 12 catchments in Switzerland, to determine whether summer or winter precipitation is overrepresented in streamflow, relative to its proportion of total precipitation. Similarities between precipitation and streamflow weighted‐mean δO values indicate that roughly equal fractions of summer and winter precipitation supply streams in Switzerland. These results, together with mass conservation, suggest that similar fractions of summer and winter precipitation supply evapotranspiration. These findings contrast with the assumption that because summer precipitation falls when transpiration rates and evaporative demand are high, it should be underrepresented in streamflow and overrepresented in evapotranspiration. This contrast between seasonal water‐balance variations and the partitioning of seasonal precipitation into runoff and evapotranspiration demonstrates substantial interseasonal carryover of precipitation in storages that supply evapotranspiration. Precipitation inputs often greatly exceed streamflow outputs during the summer in seasonal climates because evapotranspiration rates are much higher in summer than in winter. Such seasonal water balance variations often lead to the expectation that smaller proportions of summer precipitation and larger proportions of winter precipitation eventually become streamflow. We tested which seasons' precipitation was overrepresented in streamflow, relative to their proportions of total precipitation. We did this using the stable isotope ratios of precipitation—which are distinctly heavier in summer than in winter—and streamflow in 12 streams in Switzerland. We found that the volume‐weighted averages of precipitation and streamflow were isotopically similar, implying that neither season is overrepresented in streamflow. Thus, the fraction of summer precipitation that becomes streamflow roughly equals the fraction of winter precipitation that becomes streamflow. Our results potentially suggest that streamflow and evapotranspiration, including the use of water by plants during growing seasons, may both be sensitive to fluctuations in summer and winter precipitation. We tested whether summer or winter precipitation is overrepresented in streamflow relative to its proportion of total precipitation Oxygen‐18 ratios in streams indicate that similar fractions of summer and winter precipitation become discharge in Switzerland Interseasonal storage can explain why the seasonal partitioning of precipitation differed substantially from the seasonal water balance
    Keywords: Switzerland ; Summer ; Winter Precipitation ; Water Shortages ; Runoff ; Water Balance ; Isotope Ratios ; Variations ; Precipitation ; Water Balance ; Stream Flow ; Water Use ; Evapotranspiration ; Winter ; Runoff ; Summer ; Precipitation ; Precipitation Variability ; Precipitation ; Seasonal Precipitation;
    ISSN: 0094-8276
    E-ISSN: 1944-8007
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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