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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2010, Vol. 78(9), p.3898
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    Source: American Society of Microbiology
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity IAI, 2010, Vol.78(9), pp.3898-3904
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi must adapt to the environment of the human host to establish and maintain infection in the skin. Bacteria generally utilize stress response systems, such as the CpxRA two-component system, to adapt to hostile environments. CpxRA is the only obvious two-component system contained in the H. ducreyi genome and negatively regulates the lspB-lspA2 operon, which encodes proteins that enable the organism to resist phagocytosis. We constructed an unmarked, in-frame H. ducreyi cpxA deletion mutant, 35000HPΔcpxA. In human inoculation experiments, 35000HPΔcpxA formed papules at a rate and size that were significantly less than its parent and was unable to form pustules compared to the parent. CpxA usually has kinase and phosphatase activities for CpxR, and the deletion of CpxA leads to the accumulation of activated CpxR due to the loss of phosphatase activity and the ability of CpxR to accept phosphate groups from other donors. Using a reporter construct, the lspB-lspA2 promoter was downregulated in 35000HPΔcpxA, confirming that CpxR was activated. Deletion of cpxA downregulated DsrA, the major determinant of serum resistance in the organism, causing the mutant to become serum susceptible. Complementation in trans restored parental phenotypes. 35000HPΔcpxA is the first H. ducreyi mutant that is impaired in its ability to form both papules and pustules in humans. Since a major function of CpxRA is to control the flow of protein traffic across the periplasm, uncontrolled activation of this system likely causes dysregulated expression of multiple virulence determinants and cripples the ability of the organism to adapt to the host. ; Includes references ; p. 3898-3904.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Physiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Protein Kinases -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 3
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2008, Vol. 76(3), p.967
    Description: Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells involved in the initiation and modulation of immune responses after immunization via their ability to process and present antigen to naive T cells. We wanted to examine the role of DCs in the development of protective immunity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI)-induced experimental otitis media (OM) after intranasal immunization of chinchillas with an NTHI P5-derived synthetic peptide immunogen called LB1. As chinchilla DCs have not been described, we adapted well-established protocols to induce the differentiation of chinchilla bone marrow precursor cells into DCs, which resulted in cells that were morphologically and phenotypically similar to DCs of other species. In vitro, chinchilla DCs readily internalized LB1, upregulated expression of the maturation markers CD80 and major histocompatibility complex class II, and presented processed LB1 to primed CD3 super(+) T cells, which resulted in antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. In vivo, LB1-activated DCs trafficked from the chinchilla nasal cavity primarily to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues and were detected in close proximity to CD3 super(+) T cells within this lymphoid aggregate. These data are the first to characterize chinchilla DCs and their functional properties. Furthermore, they suggest an important role for chinchilla DCs in the development of protective immunity against experimental NTHI-induced OM after intranasal immunization.
    Keywords: Synthetic Peptides ; Bone Marrow ; Major Histocompatibility Complex ; Immunization ; Lymphoid Tissue ; Dendritic Cells ; Differentiation ; Otitis Media ; Osteoprogenitor Cells ; Lymphocytes T ; Cd80 Antigen ; Nose ; Cd3 Antigen ; Antigen-Presenting Cells ; Cell Proliferation ; Haemophilus Influenzae ; Rodentia ; Immunology ; Microorganisms & Parasites;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 4
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2005, Vol. 73(1), p.599
    Description: Bacteria have evolved strategies to resist killing by antimicrobial peptides (APs), important effectors of innate immunity. The sap (sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides) operon confers resistance to AP-mediated killing of SALMONELLA: We have recently shown that sapA gene expression is upregulated in the middle ear in a chinchilla model of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI)-induced otitis media. Based on these findings, we constructed an NTHI strain containing a Lux reporter plasmid driven by the sapA promoter and demonstrated early yet transient expression of the sap operon within sites of the chinchilla upper airway upon infection. We hypothesized that the sap operon products mediate NTHI resistance to APs. In order to test this hypothesis, we constructed a nonpolar mutation in the sapA gene of NTHI strain 86-028NP, a low- passage-number clinical isolate. The sapA mutant was approximately eightfold more sensitive than the parent strain to killing by recombinant chinchilla beta- defensin 1. We then assessed the ability of this mutant to both colonize and cause otitis media in chinchillas. The sapA mutant was significantly attenuated compared to the parent strain in its ability to survive in both the nasopharynx and the middle ear of the chinchilla. In addition, the mutant was impaired in its ability to compete with the parent strain in a dual-strain challenge model of infection. Our results indicate that the products of the sap operon are important for resisting the activity of APs and may regulate, in part, the balance between normal carriage and disease caused by NTHI.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Influenzae ; Salmonella ; Haemophilus Influenzae ; Salmonella ; Operons ; Otitis Media ; Antimicrobial Peptides ; Middle Ear ; Sapa Gene ; Immunity ; Mutation ; Respiratory Tract ; Promoters ; Nasopharynx ; Plasmids ; Defensins ; Operons ; Otitis Media ; Antimicrobial Peptides ; Middle Ear ; Sapa Gene ; Immunity ; Mutation ; Respiratory Tract ; Promoters ; Nasopharynx ; Plasmids ; Defensins ; Ear, Nose and Respiratory Tract ; Bacterial Genetics ; Eap Operon ; Eap Operon;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 5
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2002, Vol. 70(4), p.1667
    Keywords: Animals–Etiology ; Chancroid–Immunology ; Disease Models, Animal–Pathology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi–Immunology ; Humans–Pathogenicity ; Interferon-Gamma–Biosynthesis ; Macrophages–Immunology ; Neutrophils–Immunology ; Proteins–Biosynthesis ; Rabbits–Biosynthesis ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha–Biosynthesis ; Virulence–Biosynthesis ; Proteins ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha ; Interferon-Induced 56k Protein, Human ; Interferon-Gamma;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 6
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2003, Vol. 71(6), p.3454
    Description: The gram-negative bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the predominant pathogen in chronic otitis media with effusion and, with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, is a causative agent of acute otitis media. To identify potential virulence determinants, bacterial gene expression was monitored by differential fluorescence induction during early disease progression in one specific anatomical niche of a chinchilla model of NTHI-induced otitis media. Genomic DNA fragments from NTHI strain 86-028NP were cloned upstream of the promoterless gfpmut3 gene. NTHI strain 86-028NP served as the host for the promoter trap library. Pools of 2,000 transformants were inoculated into the left and right middle ear cavities of chinchillas. Middle ear effusions were recovered by epitympanic tap at 24 and 48 h, and clones containing promoter elements that were induced in vivo and producing green fluorescent protein were isolated by two-color fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Insert DNA was sequenced and compared to the complete genome sequence of H. influenzae strain Rd. In a screen of 16,000 clones, we have isolated 44 clones that contain unique gene fragments encoding biosynthetic enzymes, metabolic and regulatory proteins, and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. An additional eight clones contain gene fragments unique to our NTHI isolate. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we have confirmed that 26 clones demonstrated increased gene expression in vivo relative to expression in vitro. These data provide insight into the response of NTHI bacteria as they sense and respond to the middle ear microenvironment during early events of otitis media.
    Keywords: Disease Models, Animal ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Haemophilus Influenzae -- Genetics ; Otitis Media -- Microbiology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 7
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2007, Vol. 75(1), p.113
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is a gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of chancroid. Strain 35000HP has been well characterized and is representative of the majority of H. ducreyi strains. Strain 35000HP produces a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that contains D-glycero-D-manno-heptose in the main oligosaccharide chain extension; the lbgB gene has been shown to encode the DD-heptosyltransferase. The lbgB gene is found in a gene cluster together with the lbgA gene, which encodes for the galactosyltransferase I. These two genes are flanked by two housekeeping genes, rpmE and xthA, encoding the ribosomal protein L31 and the exonuclease III, respectively. Recently, a second group of H. ducreyi strains have been identified. Strain 33921, a representative of the class II strains, produces an LOS that lacks DD-heptose in the oligosaccharide portion of its LOS. To better understand the biosynthesis of the DD-heptose-deficient 33921 LOS, we cloned and sequenced the corresponding lbgAB genomic region from strain 33921. Similar to strain 35000HP, the 33921 genome contains xthA and rpmE. However, between these two genes we identified genes encoding two putative glycosyltransferases that were not highly homologous to the 35000HP lbgAB genes. In this study, we demonstrate that the product of one of these genes encodes a galactosyltransferase. In addition, dot blot hybridization determined that 3 of 35 strains tested had the atypical transferases present, as did 4 strains characterized as class II strains by other criterion. These data indicate that the lbgAB genes can serve as one indicator of the classification of H. ducreyi strains.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 8
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2005, Vol. 73(10), p.6727
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, produces a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) which terminates in N-acetyllactosamine. This glycoform can be further extended by the addition of a single sialic acid residue to the terminal galactose moiety. H. ducreyi does not synthesize sialic acid, which must be acquired from the host during infection or from the culture medium when the bacteria are grown in vitro. However, H. ducreyi does not have genes that are highly homologous to the genes encoding known bacterial sialic acid transporters. In this study, we identified the sialic acid transporter by screening strains in a library of random transposon mutants for those mutants that were unable to add sialic acid to N-acetyllactosamine-containing LOS. Mutants that reacted with the monoclonal antibody 3F11, which recognizes the terminal lactosamine structure, and lacked reactivity with the lectin Maackia amurensis agglutinin, which recognizes alpha 2,3-linked sialic acid, were further characterized to demonstrate that they produced a N-acetyllactosamine-containing LOS by silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analyses. The genes interrupted in these mutants were mapped to a four-gene cluster with similarity to genes encoding bacterial ABC transporters. Uptake assays using radiolabeled sialic acid confirmed that the mutants were unable to transport sialic acid. This study is the first report of bacteria using an ABC transporter for sialic acid uptake.
    Keywords: Transposons ; Galactose ; N-Acetyllactosamine ; Monoclonal Antibodies ; ABC Transporter ; Chancroid ; Agglutinins ; Lectins ; Infection ; Gel Electrophoresis ; Sialic Acids ; Lipooligosaccharides ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Genetics and Evolution ; Bacteria ; Microorganisms & Parasites;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
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  • 9
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2002, Vol. 70(10), p.5887
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is the causative agent of chancroid, a sexually transmitted ulcerative disease. In the present study, the Neisseria gonorrhoeae lgtA lipooligosaccharide glycosyltransferase gene was used to identify a homologue in the genome of H. ducreyi. The putative H. ducreyi glycosyltransferase gene (designated lgtA) was cloned and insertionally inactivated, and an isogenic mutant was constructed. Structural studies demonstrated that the lipooligosaccharide isolated from the mutant strain lacked N-acetylglucosamine and distal sugars found in the lipooligosaccharide produced by the parental strain. The isogenic mutant was transformed with a recombinant plasmid containing the putative glycosyltransferase gene. This strain produced the lipooligosaccharide glycoforms produced by the parental strain, confirming that the lgtA gene encodes the N-acetylglucosamine glycosyltransferase.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 10
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2005, Vol. 73(3), p.1635
    Description: Haemophilus influenzae is considered a nonmotile organism that expresses neither flagella nor type IV pili, although H. influenzae strain Rd possesses a cryptic pilus locus. We demonstrate here that the homologous gene cluster pilABCD in an otitis media isolate of nontypeable H. influenzae strain 86-028NP encodes a surface appendage that is highly similar, structurally and functionally, to the well-characterized subgroup of bacterial pili known as type IV pili. This gene cluster includes a gene (pilA) that likely encodes the major subunit of the heretofore uncharacterized H. influenzae-expressed type IV pilus, a gene with homology to a type IV prepilin peptidase (pilD) as well as two additional uncharacterized genes (pilB and pilC). A second gene cluster (comABCDEF) was also identified by homology to other pil or type II secretion system genes. When grown in chemically defined medium at an alkaline pH, strain 86-028NP produces approximately 7-nm-diameter structures that are near polar in location. Importantly, these organisms exhibit twitching motility. A mutation in the pilA gene abolishes both expression of the pilus structure and the twitching phenotype, whereas a mutant lacking ComE, a Pseudomonas PilQ homologue, produced large appendages that appeared to be membrane bound and terminated in a slightly bulbous tip. These latter structures often showed a regular pattern of areas of constriction and expansion. The recognition that H. influenzae possesses a mechanism for twitching motility will likely profoundly influence our understanding of H. influenzae-induced diseases of the respiratory tract and their sequelae.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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