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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, October 2011, Vol.7(4), pp.612-623
    Description: The quantification of risk (the likelihood and extent of adverse effects) is a prerequisite in regulatory decision making for plant protection products and is the goal of the Xplicit project. In its present development stage, realism is increased in the exposure assessment (EA), first by using real‐world data on, e.g., landscape factors affecting exposure, and second, by taking the variability of key factors into account. Spatial and temporal variability is explicitly addressed. Scale dependencies are taken into account, which allows for risk quantification at different scales, for example, at landscape scale, an overall picture of the potential exposure of nontarget organisms can be derived (e.g., for all off‐crop habitats in a given landscape); at local scale, exposure might be relevant to assess recovery and recolonization potential; intermediate scales might best refer to population level and hence might be relevant for risk management decisions (e.g., individual off‐crop habitats). The Xplicit approach is designed to comply with a central paradigm of probabilistic approaches, namely, that each individual case that is derived from the variability functions employed should represent a potential real‐world case. This is mainly achieved by operating in a spatiotemporally explicit fashion. Landscape factors affecting the local exposure of habitats of nontarget species (i.e., receptors) are derived from geodatabases. Variability in time is resolved by operating at discrete time steps, with the probability of events (e.g., application) or conditions (e.g., wind conditions) defined in probability density functions (PDFs). The propagation of variability of parameters into variability of exposure and risk is done using a Monte Carlo approach. Among the outcomes are expectancy values on the realistic worst‐case exposure (predicted environmental concentration [PEC]), the probability that the PEC exceeds the ecologically acceptable concentration (EAC) for a given fraction of habitats, and risk curves. The outcome can be calculated at any ecologically meaningful organization level of receptors. An example application of Xplicit is shown for a hypothetical risk assessment for nontarget arthropods (NTAs), demonstrating how the risk quantification can be improved compared with the standard deterministic approach. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2011;7:612–623. © 2011 SETAC
    Keywords: Probabilistic Risk Assessment ; Plant Protection Products ; Spray Drift ; Monte Carlo ; Landscape Level
    ISSN: 1551-3777
    E-ISSN: 1551-3793
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, January 2013, Vol.9(1), pp.172-173
    Description: Byline: Alexander Feckler, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh ***** No abstract is available for this article. ***** Author Affiliation: Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences;
    ISSN: 1551-3777
    E-ISSN: 1551-3793
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  • 3
    In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, April 2014, Vol.10(2), pp.286-298
    Description: A method for identifying measures to reduce pesticide entries into aquatic ecosystems via spray drift and runoff is presented: Based on a survey of exposure‐relevant landscape parameters, a set of risk mitigation measures focusing on the specific situation of pollution of a water body catchment can be identified. An overview of the effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of risk mitigation measures included in the guide (in total 18) is presented. The present guide presents a step toward the practical implementation of risk mitigation measures for reducing pesticide entry in aquatic ecosystems.
    Keywords: Landscape Monitoring ; Pesticide Exposure ; Riparian Buffer Strips ; Risk Management Measure ; Stream ; Surface Water
    ISSN: 1551-3777
    E-ISSN: 1551-3793
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  • 4
    In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, November 2017, Vol.13(6), pp.974-979
    Description: A species selection procedure is described to identify potential test species that are likely exposed in the field and may be at risk to suffer from the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. Thereby this procedure could support the environmental risk assessment of GM crops. Potential improvements for the selection procedure are discussed.
    Keywords: Bt Maize ; Genetically Modified Crops ; Nontarget Organisms ; Environmental Risk Assessment ; Aquatic Species
    ISSN: 1551-3777
    E-ISSN: 1551-3793
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, April 2007, Vol.3(2), pp.259-267
    Description: The aim of this review is to examine how the choice of test species and study design employed in the use of in situ approaches in ecological risk assessment can maximize the ecological relevance of data. We provide a framework to define and assess ecological relevance that permits study designs to remain focused on the ecological question being addressed. This framework makes explicit the linkages between effects at lower levels of biological organization and higher‐order ecological effects at the population, community, and ecosystem levels. The usefulness of this framework is illustrated by reference to specific examples from aquatic ecotoxicology. The use of models as both interpretive and predictive tools is discussed, with suggestions of appropriate methods for different protection goals.
    Keywords: Ecological Risk Assessment ; In Situ Bioassay ; Extrapolation
    ISSN: 1551-3777
    E-ISSN: 1551-3793
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Integrated environmental assessment and management, January 2009, Vol.5(1), pp.69-79
    Description: The procedure for the risk assessment of pesticides in Germany is currently further developed from a deterministic to a geodata-based probabilistic risk assessment (GeoPRA) approach. As the initial step, the exposure assessment for spray drift in permanent...
    Keywords: Geographic Information Systems ; Risk Assessment ; Pesticides -- Chemistry ; Rivers -- Chemistry ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 1551-3777
    E-ISSN: 15513793
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Integrated environmental assessment and management, April 2007, Vol.3(2), pp.259-67
    Description: The aim of this review is to examine how the choice of test species and study design employed in the use of in situ approaches in ecological risk assessment can maximize the ecological relevance of data. We provide a framework to define and assess ecological relevance that permits study designs to remain...
    Keywords: Ecology ; Ecosystem ; Environmental Monitoring -- Methods ; Environmental Pollutants -- Toxicity
    ISSN: 1551-3777
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, January 2009, Vol.5(1), pp.69-79
    Description: The procedure for the risk assessment of pesticides in Germany is currently further developed from a deterministic to a geodata‐based probabilistic risk assessment (GeoPRA) approach. As the initial step, the exposure assessment for spray drift in permanent crops, such as vineyards, fruit orchards, and hops, is considered. In our concept, geoinformation tools are used to predict distribution functions for exposure concentrations based mainly on spatial information regarding the neighbourhood of crops and surface waters. A total number of 23 factors affecting the drift into surface waters were assessed and suggestions for their inclusion into the approach developed. The main objectives are to base the exposure estimation on a realistic representation of local landscape characteristics and on empirical results for the impact of each feature on the drift deposition. A framework for the identification of high‐risk sites (active management areas [AMAs]) based on protection goals and ecological considerations was developed in order to implement suitable risk mitigation measures. The inclusion of active mitigation measures at sites with identified and verified risk is considered a central and important part of the overall assessment strategy. The suggested GeoPRA procedure itself is comprised of the following 4 steps, including elements of the extensive preliminary work conducted so far: 1) nationwide risk assessment, preferably based only on geodata‐based factors; 2) identification of AMAs, including the spatial extension of contamination, the level of contamination, and the tolerable effect levels; 3) refined exposure assessment, using aerial photographs and field surveys; and 4) mitigation measures, with a focus on landscape‐level active mitigation measures leading to effective risk reductions. The suggested GeoPRA procedure offers the possibility to actively involve the farming community in the process of pesticide management. Overall, the new procedure will aim at increased flexibility of pesticide application regulations and a high level of protection of surface waters.
    Keywords: Exposure Assessment ; Geographic Information System ; Risk Mitigation ; Spray Drift
    ISSN: 1551-3777
    E-ISSN: 1551-3793
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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