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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2014, Vol.225(9), pp.1-13
    Description: Biochar, a by-product resulting from the pyrolysis of biomass, is considered to be an anthropogenic carbonaceous sorbent. Despite a worldwide increase in the application of biochar on agricultural fields to improve crop productivity over the past few decades, there have been few studies on their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants. In a field-based study at two experimental sites in Denmark, we investigated the effect of birch wood-derived biochar ( Skogans kol ) on the sorption of phenanthrene in soils with different properties. The soil sorption coefficient, K d (L kg −1 ), of phenanthrene was measured on sandy loam and loamy sand soils which have received from zero up to 100 t ha −1 of biochar. Results show that birch wood biochar had a higher K d compared to soils. Furthermore, the application of birch wood biochar enhanced the sorption of phenanthrene in agricultural soils, and the enhancement effect increased with an increasing biochar application rate. Aging, repeated application, and higher clay content suppressed the biochar enhancement effect on the sorption of phenanthrene. Phenanthrene K d was found to be strongly and positively correlated with both total and non-complexed organic carbon, while negatively correlated with clay content. The results also revealed that biochar–mineral interactions play an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene in biochar-amended soil.
    Keywords: Phenanthrene ; Biochar ; Sorption ; Organic carbon
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, November 2018, Vol.47(6), pp.1538-1545
    Description: The mobilization and transport of colloid particles in soils can have negative agronomic and environmental effects. This work investigates the controls of particle release and transport from undisturbed soil columns sampled from an agricultural, loamy field with clay and silt contents of 0.05 to 0.14 and 0.07 to 0.16 kg kg, respectively. Forty-five soil columns (20 × 20 cm) were collected from the field and exposed to a constant irrigation of 10 mm h for 8 h. The accumulated mass of particles in the outflow from each column was highly correlated ( = 0.88) with the volumetric mass of fines (MF). The MF is defined as the sum of clay and fine silt (〈20 μm) multiplied by the soil bulk density and divided by the particle density of the mineral fines. Thereby, MF represents both the particle source available for mobilization and leaching and an indicator of soil structure. The particle release process showed two linear particle release rates. Although the two particle release rates were distinctly different, both were strongly correlated with MF. The difference between the two rates was related to the degree of preferential flow characterized by the 5% arrival time of an applied tracer pulse. Soil columns with a longer 5% arrival time (less preferential flow) showed a distinct difference between the two rates, whereas soil columns with a short 5% arrival time and fast water transport showed resemblance between the two particle release rates. Thus, the combined effects of particle source, type, and pathways (via soil structure and compaction) need consideration to understand and predict particle transport dynamics through intact topsoil.
    Keywords: Environmental Monitoring ; Minerals -- Analysis ; Soil Pollutants -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, January 2017, Vol.46(1), pp.143-152
    Description: The mobility of water-dispersible colloids (WDCs) in soil may be influenced by soil management practices such as organic soil amendments. Biochar has recently been promoted as a useful soil amendment, and extensive research has been devoted to investigating its effects on soil macroscopic properties and functions. However, there is limited understanding of the effects of biochar application on micro-scale particle dynamics. We conducted a field study to investigate the effects of the application of birch ( spp.) wood biochar on colloid dispersibility with respect to application rate, history, and physicochemical soil properties. Undisturbed soil cores (100 cm) were collected from the topsoil of two agricultural sites in Denmark with soils of sandy loam texture. The two sites received biochar at different application rates (0-100 Mg ha) and were sampled 7 to 19 mo later. The WDC content was determined using an end-over-end shaking method on 100-cm intact soil cores, and the colloid solution was analyzed for electrical conductivity, pH, and zeta potential. The WDC content increased with biochar application rate because of biochar-induced changes in soil chemistry and was strongly and positively correlated with the concentration of exchangeable monovalent cations in the soils. Biochar application increased pH and decreased electrical conductivity and zeta potential in the colloid suspension more in the short term (7 mo) than in the long term (19 mo). Thus, there is potential for biochar to induce short-term changes in soil solution chemistry in agricultural soils, which may influence the mobility of soil colloids.
    Keywords: Charcoal ; Colloids ; Soil -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environment Quality, 2014, Vol.43(2), p.647
    Description: Application of biochar to agricultural fields to improve soil quality has increased in popularity in recent years, but limited attention is generally paid to existing field conditions before biochar application. This study examined the short-term physicochemical effects of biochar amendment in an agricultural field in Denmark with a calcium carbonate (CaCO sub( 3)) gradient. The field comprised four reference plots and four plots to which biochar (birch wood pyrolyzed at 500 degree C) was applied at a rate of 20 t ha super( -1). Five undisturbed soil columns (10 cm diam., 8 cm height) were sampled from each plot 7 mo after biochar application, and a series of leaching experiments was conducted. The leachate was analyzed for tritium (used as a tracer), colloids, and phosphorus concentration. The results revealed that the presence of CaCO sub( 3) has resulted in marked changes in soil structure (bulk density) and soil chemical properties (e.g., pH and ionic strength), which significantly affected air and water transport and colloid and phosphorous leaching. In denser soils (bulk density, 1.57-1.69 g cm super( -3)) preferential flow dominated the transport and caused an enhanced movement of air and water, whereas in less dense soils (bulk density, 1.38-1.52 g cm super( -3)) matrix flow predominated the transport. Compared with reference soils, biochar-amended soils showed slightly lower air permeability and a shorter travel time for 5% of the applied tracer (tritium) to leach through the soil columns. Colloid and phosphorus leaching was observed to be time dependent in soils with low CaCO sub( 3). Biocha-ramended soils showed higher colloid and P release than reference soils. Field-scale variations in total colloid and P leaching reflected clear effects of changes in pH and ionic strength due to the presence of CaCO sub( 3). There was a linear relationship between colloid and P concentrations in the leachate, suggesting that colloid-facilitated P leaching was the dominant P transport mechanism.
    Keywords: Permeability ; Tracers ; Leaching ; Colloids ; Tritium ; Environmental Quality ; Calcium Carbonates ; Ph Effects ; Abiotic Factors ; Leaching ; Colloids ; Phosphorus ; Wood ; Soil ; Tracers ; Permeability ; Agricultural Land ; Soil Structure ; Tritium ; Calcium Carbonates ; Soil Properties ; Leachates ; Ph ; Permeability ; Leaching ; Colloids ; Tritium ; Density ; Phosphorus ; Soil Columns ; Hydrogen Ion Concentration ; Leachates ; Permeability ; Leaching ; Colloids ; Tritium ; Density ; Phosphorus ; Soil Columns ; Hydrogen Ion Concentration ; Leachates ; Denmark ; Water Resources and Supplies ; General ; Air Pollution ; Methods and Instruments;
    ISSN: Journal of Environment Quality
    E-ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, 2013, Vol.42(1), pp.271-83
    Description: Preferential flow and particle-facilitated transport through macropores contributes significantly to the transport of strongly sorbing substances such as pesticides and phosphorus. The aim of this study was to perform a field-scale characterization of basic soil physical properties like clay and organic carbon content and investigate whether it was possible to relate these to derived structural parameters such as bulk density and conservative tracer parameters and to actual particle and phosphorus leaching patterns obtained from laboratory leaching experiments. Sixty-five cylindrical soil columns of 20-cm height and 20-cm diameter and bulk soil were sampled from the topsoil in a 15-m × 15-m grid in an agricultural loamy field. Highest clay contents and highest bulk densities were found in the northern part of the field. Leaching experiments with a conservative tracer showed fast 5% tracer arrival times and high tracer recovery percentages from columns sampled from the northern part of the field, and the leached mass of particles and particulate phosphorus was also largest from this area. Strong correlations were obtained between 5% tracer arrival time, tracer recovery, and bulk density, indicating that a few well-aligned and better connected macropores might change the hydraulic conductivity between the macropores and the soil matrix, triggering an onset of preferential flow at lower rain intensities compared with less compacted soil. Overall, a comparison mapping of basic and structural characteristics including soil texture, bulk density, dissolved tracer, particle and phosphorus transport parameters identified the northern one-third of the field as a zone with higher leaching risk. This risk assessment based on parameter mapping from measurements on intact samples was in good agreement with 9 yr of pesticide detections in two horizontal wells and with particle and phosphorus leaching patterns from a distributed, shallow drainage pipe system across the field.
    Keywords: Soil ; Soil Pollutants
    ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, November 2013, Vol.42(6), pp.1852-62
    Description: Copper contamination affects biological, chemical, and physical soil properties and associated ecological functions. Changes in soil pore organization as a result of Cu contamination can dramatically affect flow and contaminant transport in polluted soils. This study assessed the influence of soil structure on the movement of water and Cu in a long-term polluted soil. Undisturbed soil cores collected along a Cu gradient (from about 20 to about 3800 mg Cu kg soil) were scanned using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Leaching experiments were performed to analyze tracer transport, colloid leaching, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Cu losses. The 5% arrival time () and apparent dispersivity (λ) for tracer breakthrough were calculated by fitting the experimental data to a nonparametric, double-lognormal probability density function. Soil bulk density, which did not follow the Cu gradient, was the main driver of preferential flow, while macroporosity determined by X-ray CT (for pores 〉180 μm) proved the best predictor of solute transport. Higher preferential flow due to the presence of well-aligned pores and small cracks controlled water movement in compacted soil. Transport of Cu was rapid during the first flush (≈1 pore volume) in association with the movement of colloid particles, followed by slower transport in association with the movement of DOC in the soil solution. The relative amount of Cu released was strongly correlated with macroporosity as determined by X-ray CT, indicating the promising potential of this visualization technique for predicting contaminant transport through soil.
    Keywords: Leaching ; Colloids ; Contamination ; Pollution Dispersion ; Particulates ; Copper ; Soil Contamination ; Soil ; Tracers ; Soil Structure ; Soil Properties ; Computed Tomography ; Chemical Pollution ; Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Land Pollution ; Toxicology & Environmental Safety;
    ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environment Quality, 2000, Vol.29(5), p.1642
    Keywords: Environmental Geology ; Soils ; Accuracy ; Cation Exchange Capacity ; Chlorinated Hydrocarbons ; Clay Minerals ; Concentration ; Fluctuations ; Gases ; Geochemistry ; Halogenated Hydrocarbons ; Mathematical Models ; Measurement ; Mineral Composition ; Organic Compounds ; Pollutants ; Pollution ; Pore Water ; Prediction ; Sheet Silicates ; Silicates ; Soils ; Sorption ; Textures ; Trichloroethylene ; Volatile Organic Compounds ; Volatiles;
    ISSN: Journal of Environment Quality
    E-ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
    Source: CrossRef
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