The Journal of Urology, August 2016, Vol.196(2), pp.570-578
Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer. Little is known about pivotal events in tumor pathogenesis and metastasis. Lymph node metastasis is the prevailing prognostic factor while clinical detection in patients remains difficult. Our aim was to identify distinct miRNAs that are differentially expressed in metastatic vs nonmetastatic penile carcinoma, which may serve as diagnostic biomarkers for disease progression. TaqMan® arrays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were applied to analyze miRNA profiles in penile squamous cell carcinoma specimens and glans tissue from 24 patients. The prognostic value of deregulated miRNAs was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Spearman test was applied to determine a potential linkage between distinctive miRNAs in individual patients. Loss of miR-1 (p = 0.0048), miR-101 (p = 0.0001) and miR-204 (p = 0.0004) in metastasizing tumors and associated metastases (p = 0.0151, 0.0019 and 0.0003, respectively) distinguished patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma. These 3 miRNAs showed a coherent expression pattern. Consistently, patients with low levels of all 3 miRNAs had worse survival (p = 0.03). We identified a coordinately regulated miRNA target hub that is over expressed in penile squamous cell carcinoma and associated with lymphovascular invasion. Our results provide evidence of a novel multiple miRNA based signature associated with lymph node metastasis and unfavorable prognosis of penile squamous cell carcinoma. The integrated loss of miR-1, miR-101 and miR-204 may predict the formation of metastases in penile cancer at an early stage.
Penile Neoplasms ; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell ; Neoplasm Metastasis ; Micrornas ; Mortality ; Medicine
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