Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2009, Vol. 83(20), p.10494
    Description: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M viruses have achieved a global distribution, while HIV-1 group O viruses are endemic only in particular regions of Africa. Here, we evaluated biological characteristics of group O and group M viruses in ex vivo models of HIV-1 infection. The replicative capacity and ability to induce CD4 T-cell depletion of eight group O and seven group M primary isolates were monitored in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tonsil explants. Comparative and longitudinal infection studies revealed HIV-1 group-specific activity patterns: CCR5-using (R5) viruses from group M varied considerably in their replicative capacity but showed similar levels of cytopathicity. In contrast, R5 isolates from group O were relatively uniform in their replicative fitness but displayed a high and unprecedented variability in their potential to deplete CD4 T cells. Two R5 group O isolates were identified that cause massive depletion of CD4 T cells, to an extent comparable to CXCR4-using viruses and not documented for any R5 isolate from group M. Intergroup comparisons found a five- to eightfold lower replicative fitness of isolates from group O than for isolates from group M yet a similar overall intrinsic pathogenicity in tonsil cultures. This study establishes biological ex vivo characteristics of HIV-1 group O primary isolates. The current findings challenge the belief that a grossly reduced replicative fitness or inherently impaired cytopathicity of viruses from this group underlies their low global prevalence.
    Keywords: HIV-1 -- Classification ; Leukocytes, Mononuclear -- Virology ; Palatine Tonsil -- Virology;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, 01 January 2018, Vol.92(1)
    Description: Similar to other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes massive rearrangements of intracellular membranes, resulting in a membranous web (MW) composed of predominantly double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), the presumed sites of RNA replication. DMVs are enriched for cholesterol, but mechanistic details on the source and recruitment of cholesterol to the viral replication organelle are only partially known. Here we focused on selected lipid transfer proteins implicated in direct lipid transfer at various endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane contact sites. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown identified several hitherto unknown HCV dependency factors, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer domain protein 3 (STARD3), oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1A and -B (OSBPL1A and -B), and Niemann-Pick-type C1 (NPC1), all residing at late endosome and lysosome membranes and required for efficient HCV RNA replication but not for replication of the closely related dengue virus. Focusing on NPC1, we found that knockdown or pharmacological inhibition caused cholesterol entrapment in lysosomal vesicles concomitant with decreased cholesterol abundance at sites containing the viral replicase factor NS5A. In untreated HCV-infected cells, unesterified cholesterol accumulated at the perinuclear region, partially colocalizing with NS5A at DMVs, arguing for NPC1-mediated endosomal cholesterol transport to the viral replication organelle. Consistent with cholesterol being an important structural component of DMVs, reducing NPC1-dependent endosomal cholesterol transport impaired MW integrity. This suggests that HCV usurps lipid transfer proteins, such as NPC1, at ER-late endosome/lysosome membrane contact sites to recruit cholesterol to the viral replication organelle, where it contributes to MW functionality. A key feature of the replication of positive-strand RNA viruses is the rearrangement of the host cell endomembrane system to produce a membranous replication organelle (RO). The underlying mechanisms are far from being elucidated fully. In this report, we provide evidence that HCV RNA replication depends on functional lipid transport along the endosomal-lysosomal pathway that is mediated by several lipid transfer proteins, such as the Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) protein. Pharmacological inhibition of NPC1 function reduced viral replication, impaired the transport of cholesterol to the viral replication organelle, and altered organelle morphology. Besides NPC1, our study reports the importance of additional endosomal and lysosomal lipid transfer proteins required for viral replication, thus contributing to our understanding of how HCV manipulates their function in order to generate a membranous replication organelle. These results might have implications for the biogenesis of replication organelles of other positive-strand RNA viruses.
    Keywords: Dmv ; Hcv ; Npc1 ; RNA Replication ; Cholesterol ; Lipid Transfer ; Homeostasis ; Virus Replication ; Cholesterol -- Metabolism ; Endosomes -- Physiology ; Hepacivirus -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, February 2014, Vol.88(3), pp.1433-46
    Description: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) predominantly infects human hepatocytes, although extrahepatic virus reservoirs are being discussed. Infection of cells is initiated via cell-free and direct cell-to-cell transmission routes. Cell type-specific determinants of HCV entry and RNA replication have been reported. Moreover, several host factors required for synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins from liver cells, in part expressed in tissue-specific fashion, have been implicated in HCV assembly. However, the minimal cell type-specific requirements for HCV assembly have remained elusive. Here we report that production of HCV trans-complemented particles (HCVTCP) from nonliver cells depends on ectopic expression of apolipoprotein E (ApoE). For efficient virus production by full-length HCV genomes, microRNA 122 (miR-122)-mediated enhancement of RNA replication is additionally required. Typical properties of cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc) particles from ApoE-expressing nonliver cells are comparable to those of virions derived from human hepatoma cells, although specific infectivity of virions is modestly reduced. Thus, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), and apolipoprotein C1 (ApoC1), previously implicated in HCV assembly, are dispensable for production of infectious HCV. In the absence of ApoE, release of core protein from infected cells is reduced, and production of extracellular as well as intracellular infectivity is ablated. Since envelopment of capsids was not impaired, we conclude that ApoE acts after capsid envelopment but prior to secretion of infectious HCV. Remarkably, the lack of ApoE also abrogated direct HCV cell-to-cell transmission. These findings highlight ApoE as a host factor codetermining HCV tissue tropism due to its involvement in a late assembly step and viral cell-to-cell transmission.
    Keywords: Viral Tropism ; Virus Assembly ; Apolipoproteins E -- Metabolism ; Hepacivirus -- Physiology ; Hepatitis C -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, November 2014, Vol.88(21), pp.12644-55
    Description: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles associate with lipoproteins and infect cells by using at least four cell entry factors. These factors include scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), CD81, claudin 1 (CLDN1), and occludin (OCLN). Little is known about specific functions of individual host factors during HCV cell entry and viral domains that mediate interactions with these factors. Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) within viral envelope protein 2 (E2) is involved in the usage of SR-BI and conceals the viral CD81 binding site. Moreover, deletion of this domain alters the density of virions. We compared lipoprotein interaction, surface attachment, receptor usage, and cell entry between wild-type HCV and a viral mutant lacking this domain. Deletion of HVR1 did not affect CD81, CLDN1, and OCLN usage. However, unlike wild-type HCV, HVR1-deleted viruses were not neutralized by antibodies and small molecules targeting SR-BI. Nevertheless, modulation of SR-BI cell surface expression altered the infection efficiencies of both viruses to similar levels. Analysis of affinity-purified virions revealed comparable levels of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) incorporation into viruses with or without HVR1. However, ApoE incorporated into these viruses was differentially recognized by ApoE-specific antibodies. Thus, SR-BI has at least two functions during cell entry. One of them can be neutralized by SR-BI-targeting molecules, and it is critical only for wild-type HCV. The other one is important for both viruses but apparently is not inactivated by the SR-BI binding antibodies and small molecules evaluated here. In addition, HVR1 modulates the conformation and/or epitope exposure of virus particle-associated ApoE. HCV cell entry is SR-BI dependent irrespective of the presence or absence of HVR1. Moreover, this domain modulates the properties of ApoE on the surface of virus particles. These findings have implications for the development of SR-BI-targeting antivirals. Furthermore, these findings highlight separable functions of SR-BI during HCV cell entry and reveal a novel role of HVR1 for the properties of virus-associated lipoproteins.
    Keywords: Virus Internalization ; Claudin-1 -- Metabolism ; Hepacivirus -- Physiology ; Occludin -- Metabolism ; Scavenger Receptors, Class B -- Metabolism ; Tetraspanin 28 -- Metabolism ; Viral Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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