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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2014, Vol.377(1), pp.439-456
    Description: Aims Phosphorus resources have to be managed sustainably and therefore the recycling of P from waste streams is essential. A thermo-chemical recycling process has been developed to produce a P fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA) but its plant availability is unknown. Methods Two SSA products prepared with either Ca[Cl.sub.2] (SSACa) or Mg[Cl.sub.2] (SSAMg) as chemical reactant during the thermal treatment were mixed with three soils previously labeled with [sup.33]P. Reference treatments with water-soluble P added at equal amounts of total P were included. The transfer of P from SSACa and SSAMg to Lolium multiflorum or P pools of sequentially extracted soil-fertilizer incubations were quantified. Results The shoot P uptake from SSAMg was higher than from SSACa. For SSAMg the relative effectiveness compared to a water-soluble P fertilizer was 88 % on an acidic and 71 % on a neutral soil but only 4 % on an alkaline soil. The proportion of P derived from the fertilizer in the plant and in the first two extraction pools of soil-fertilizer incubations were strongly correlated, suggesting that it is sufficient to conduct an incubation study to obtain robust information on plant P availability. Conclusions We conclude that under acidic to neutral conditions SSAMg presents an appropriate alternative to conventional P fertilizers and the dissolution of P from SSAMg seems to be governed by protons and cations in the soil solution. Keywords Sewage sludge ash * [sup.33]P labeling * Recycling fertilizer * Radioisotopes * Italian ryegrass * Sequential extraction
    Keywords: Sewage sludge ash ; P labeling ; Recycling fertilizer ; Radioisotopes ; Italian ryegrass ; Sequential extraction
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environment Quality, 2014, Vol.43(3), p.1050
    Description: Producing a P fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a strategy to efficiently recycle P from a secondary raw material. The P speciation in four SSAs was characterized before and after the removal of heavy metals by a thermo-chemical treatment that involved CaCl super( 2) addition. The researchers chose complementary techniques to determine the direct P speciation, including X-ray powder diffraction, solid-state super( 31)P direct-polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray absorption near edge structure. Results from these techniques were compared with operational and functional speciation information obtained from a sequential P extraction and a plant biotest with Italian ryegrass grown on a soil-sand mixture with little available P. The speciation of P in untreated and thermo-chemically treated SSAs depended on their elemental composition. At a molar ratio of Ca:P less than or equal to 2, SSAs contained combinations of polymorphs of AlPO sub( 4), b-tricalcium phosphate, and apatite-like P species.
    Keywords: Speciation ; Bioavailability ; X-Rays ; Phosphates ; Extraction ; Sewage Sludge ; Ashes ; Spinning;
    ISSN: Journal of Environment Quality
    E-ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, May 2014, Vol.43(3), pp.1024-31
    Description: The release of phosphorus from soils in surface runoff is strongly influenced by fertilizer inputs and contributes significantly to agriculturally driven eutrophication. This work evaluated the forms and availability of P in bulk soils and suspended solids (SS) produced by a water dispersion test that mimics the action of rain events and/or irrigation. This test was applied on soils cultivated with maize and fertilized with mineral N, P, and K (NPK); mineral P and K (PK); bovine slurry and P (S); or manure and P (M) for 15 yr. The P surplus in the treated soils was in the order NPK 〈 PK 〈 S 〈 M. Forms and availability of P were analyzed in bulk soils, and their respective SS (〈20 μm) by the Hedley sequential P fractionation method and the isotopic exchange kinetics. The labile forms increased according to P surplus and represented up to 15 and 25% of total P in the bulk soil and in the SS, respectively, indicating a selective enrichment of the more labile P forms in the erodible particles. Exchangeability of P from SS was rapid and intense as a result of a shift of P solution equilibrium at the increased water/solid ratio and a larger accumulation of more labile P in the detached particles than in the bulk soil. Phosphorus saturation of iron and aluminum oxides and the enrichment of fertilizer-derived P salts in the suspended solids control P forms and exchangeability for mineral fertilizer treatments, whereas in M soil carbon content assumed a key role.
    Keywords: Exchange ; Availability ; Aluminum Oxide ; Soils ; Phosphorus ; Fertilizing ; Enrichment ; Minerals;
    ISSN: 0047-2425
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, May 2019, Vol.48(3), pp.746-754
    Description: Thermochemical treatments allow production of sewage sludge ash (SSA) rich in P and low in heavy metals, which could be recycled in agriculture. Our objective was to quantify P release from SSA using ion sink assays and to relate these results to P speciation in SSA and plant P uptake. Anion and cation exchange membranes saturated with different counterions (HCO, Na, and H) were used to create a gradient in pH, P, or cation concentration between SSA particles and the surrounding solution. Phosphorus speciation in SSA was assessed using X-ray powder diffraction, and plant P uptake was determined in a pot experiment with an acidic and a neutral soil. Four SSA products were investigated: a SSA thermochemically treated with CaCl or MgCl (SSA Ca/Mg), a SSA blended with KCl, and a SSA blended with KCl and triple superphosphate (TSP) to obtain a marketable 12-20 P-K fertilizer. The H membranes dissolved all P species present in SSA. Combined HCO/Na membranes extracted diffusible P and noncrystalline P from SSA Ca/Mg and stanfieldite from SSA Mg. Blending with KCl hardly changed P release from SSA, whereas blending with TSP masked P release. The amount of P extracted from SSA by combined HCO/Na membranes was correlated to plant P use in the acid soil, whereas the amount of P extracted by HCO membranes alone was correlated to P use in the neutral soil. In conclusion, the ion sink assays delivered information on P release that was related to both SSA mineralogy and P use by plants.
    Keywords: Metals, Heavy ; Sewage
    ISSN: Journal of Environment Quality
    E-ISSN: 1537-2537
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