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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, March 2016, Vol.5, pp.244-260
    Description: Nyangores River watershed, headwater catchment of Mara River basin in Kenya. Climate variability and human activities are the main drivers of change of watershed hydrology. The contribution of climate variability and land use change to change in streamflow of Nyangores River, was investigated. Mann Kendall and sequential Mann Kendall tests were used to investigate the presence and breakpoint of a trend in discharge data (1965–2007) respectively. The Budyko framework was used to separate the respective contribution of drivers to change in discharge. Future response of the watershed to climate change was predicted using the runoff sensitivity equation developed. There was a significant increasing trend in the discharge with a breakpoint in 1977. Land use change was found to be the main driver of change in discharge accounting for 97.5% of the change. Climate variability only caused a net increase of the remaining 2.5% of the change; which was caused by counter impacts on discharge of increase in rainfall (increased discharge by 24%) and increase in potential evapotranspiration (decreased discharge by 21.5%). Climate change was predicted to cause a moderate 16% and 15% increase in streamflow in the next 20 and 50 years respectively. Change in discharge was specifically attributed to deforestation at the headwaters of the watershed.
    Keywords: Climate Variability ; Land Use Change ; Hydrology ; Streamflow ; Water Security ; Budyko Framework ; Geography
    ISSN: 2214-5818
    E-ISSN: 2214-5818
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 01 March 2016, Vol.5, pp.244-260
    Description: Study region: Nyangores River watershed, headwater catchment of Mara River basin in Kenya. Study focus: Climate variability and human activities are the main drivers of change of watershed hydrology. The contribution of climate variability and land use change to change in streamflow of Nyangores River, was investigated. Mann Kendall and sequential Mann Kendall tests were used to investigate the presence and breakpoint of a trend in discharge data (1965–2007) respectively. The Budyko framework was used to separate the respective contribution of drivers to change in discharge. Future response of the watershed to climate change was predicted using the runoff sensitivity equation developed. New hydrological insights for the region: There was a significant increasing trend in the discharge with a breakpoint in 1977. Land use change was found to be the main driver of change in discharge accounting for 97.5% of the change. Climate variability only caused a net increase of the remaining 2.5% of the change; which was caused by counter impacts on discharge of increase in rainfall (increased discharge by 24%) and increase in potential evapotranspiration (decreased discharge by 21.5%). Climate change was predicted to cause a moderate 16% and 15% increase in streamflow in the next 20 and 50 years respectively. Change in discharge was specifically attributed to deforestation at the headwaters of the watershed. Keywords: Climate variability, Land use change, Hydrology, Streamflow, Water security, Budyko framework
    Keywords: Geography
    ISSN: 2214-5818
    E-ISSN: 2214-5818
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, February 2019, Vol.21, pp.80-91
    Description: Nyangores catchment, Mara catchment, Kenya. Hydrologic models are widely used tools in watershed management to assist in decision making by representing catchment functions under alternative scenarios. This study focused on the evaluation of the 5 segment Flow Duration Curve based calibration procedure (5FDC) for the period 1975–1978 using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The Normal Calibration Procedure (NCP) based on the hydrograph was compared to the 5FDC. Two separate ensembles each containing 10 Pareto calibration runs were obtained individually from each method and evaluated based on their goodness-of-fit. A final Combined Procedure (CP), which was an intersection of 5FDC and NCP was executed. With this supplementary analysis, the parameter distribution and water component balance were analyzed and compared. The comparison of 5FDC and NCP shows that the 5FDC provides a better representation of the low and mid-level section of the flow duration curve as compared to the NCP, which greatly overestimates these flows. This method also closely matches the observed runoff ratios. This indicates that the 5FDC calibration may be well suited for water resource applications focused on low flows. The CP combines the advantages of both procedures by improving parameter identifiability, leading to better representation of high and low flows.
    Keywords: 5 Segmented Flow Duration Curve (5fdc) ; Normal Calibration Procedure(Ncp) ; Parameter Identifiability ; Pareto Set ; Pareto Analysis ; Water Balance ; Multimetric Calibration ; Latin Hypercube Sampling ; Performance Metrics ; Uncertainty ; Prediction ; Hydrologic Model ; Simulation ; Equifinality ; Base Flows ; Variability ; Optimum ; Stepwise Intersection ; Ensemble ; Water Partitioning ; Geography
    ISSN: 2214-5818
    E-ISSN: 2214-5818
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 01 February 2019, Vol.21, pp.80-91
    Description: Study region: Nyangores catchment, Mara catchment, Kenya. Study focus: Hydrologic models are widely used tools in watershed management to assist in decision making by representing catchment functions under alternative scenarios. This study focused on the evaluation of the 5 segment Flow Duration Curve based calibration procedure (5FDC) for the period 1975–1978 using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The Normal Calibration Procedure (NCP) based on the hydrograph was compared to the 5FDC. Two separate ensembles each containing 10 Pareto calibration runs were obtained individually from each method and evaluated based on their goodness-of-fit. A final Combined Procedure (CP), which was an intersection of 5FDC and NCP was executed. With this supplementary analysis, the parameter distribution and water component balance were analyzed and compared. New hydrological insights for the region: The comparison of 5FDC and NCP shows that the 5FDC provides a better representation of the low and mid-level section of the flow duration curve as compared to the NCP, which greatly overestimates these flows. This method also closely matches the observed runoff ratios. This indicates that the 5FDC calibration may be well suited for water resource applications focused on low flows. The CP combines the advantages of both procedures by improving parameter identifiability, leading to better representation of high and low flows. Keywords: 5 segmented Flow Duration Curve (5FDC), Normal Calibration Procedure(NCP), Parameter identifiability, Pareto set, Pareto analysis, Water balance, Multimetric calibration, Latin hypercube sampling, Performance metrics, Uncertainty, Prediction, Hydrologic model, Simulation, Equifinality, Base flows, Variability, Optimum, Stepwise intersection, Ensemble, Water partitioning
    Keywords: Geography
    ISSN: 2214-5818
    E-ISSN: 2214-5818
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
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