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  • Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, April 1981, Vol.70(4), pp.367-71
    Description: Incorporation of antigens into nanometer-sized polymer particles was recently shown to lead to a good adjuvant effect. An optimal antibody response with killed influenza virus antigens was achieved with 0.5% poly(methyl methacrylate). Long-term experiments showed prolonged antibody response of polymer adjuvants with incorporated or adsorbed influenza virus. Adsorption also yielded an optimal adjuvant effect with 0.5% poly(methyl methacrylate). The antibody response was accompanied by protection of the mice against infection with mice-adapted influenza virus. In addition, the polymer vaccines were more stable against temperature inactivation than were vaccines with aluminum hydroxide or without adjuvants.
    Keywords: Capsules ; Influenza Vaccines -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 15206017
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, April 1979, Vol.68(4), pp.451-4
    Description: Significant improvement in the effective bioavailability of methoxsalen was achieved when it was administered to rats and dogs in a solution as compared to a suspension. Much earlier and higher peak levels were observed for the solution in both animals. The possible impact of these observations on current use of this agent for psoriasis treatment is discussed.
    Keywords: Methoxsalen -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 15206017
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, October 1983, Vol.72(10), pp.1146-9
    Description: Poly(methyl [1-14C]methacrylate) nanoparticles were injected subcutaneously into rats. Almost all of the radioactivity stayed at the injection site. After an initial urinary and fecal excretion of approximately 1% of the administered dose per day, the rate of elimination dropped to a low level (approximately 0.005%/day via the feces and approximately 0.0005%/day via the urine) within 70 days. After 200 days, the fecal elimination increased exponentially until a greater than 100-fold increase was observed after 287 days in one rat. After this time, a tendency for an increase in fecal elimination was also observed in the other animals, and the radioactivity in all organs and tissue increased by approximately 100 times in all animals in comparison with the organ radioactivity determinations at earlier times.
    Keywords: Methylmethacrylates -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 15206017
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, March 1988, Vol.77(3), pp.208-9
    Description: Carbon-14-labeled polyhexylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles, with diameters between 200 and 300 nm, were injected intravenously into nude mice. The distribution in liver, spleen, lung, heart, kidney, GI tract, gonads, brain, muscle, and serum was investigated by liquid scintillation counting. After a single injection, the radiolabel was cleared slowly with 45% remaining after 28 d and 8% remaining after 140 d. After repeated injection with an interval of 28 d (twice or thrice), relatively higher proportions of the dose were found in the spleen and lung as compared with those in other organs. No histological alterations were observed in the liver, spleen, or lung.
    Keywords: Cyanoacrylates -- Pharmacokinetics
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 15206017
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, September 1984, Vol.73(9), pp.1309-11
    Description: Polymethyl [1-14C]methacrylate nanoparticles were administered orally to bile cannulated rats. Ten to fifteen percent of the administered radioactivity was absorbed and found in the bile and urine. Within 48 h, 94-97% of the absorbed radioactivity had been eliminated from the body. After 8 d, the highest residual radioactivity was found in the bone marrow, fatty renal tissue, stomach, liver, and lymph nodes.
    Keywords: Methylmethacrylates -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, March 1986, Vol.75(3), pp.256-8
    Description: [14C]Polyhexyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PHCA), with diameters between 200 and 300 nm, were injected intravenously into nude mice bearing a human osteosarcoma. The distribution in liver, spleen, lung, heart, kidney, GI tract, gonads, brain, muscle, as well as in serum and transplanted tumor fragments was investigated by liquid scintillation counting. The peak levels in all organs with the exception of tumor and spleen were reached within 24 h. The highest levels were found in the organs of the reticuloendothelial system, liver, spleen, and lungs. The radioactivity in the other organs was found to be low, approximately 2%. In the tumor and the spleen the highest levels of radioactivity were found at approximately 7 d. At this stage the level of radioactivity in the tumor was 40 times higher than that in muscle. However, the amount of isotope detected in the tumor was still generally less than 1% of the injected dose. The concentration of radioactivity in the tumor was found to be quite variable. Higher levels of radioactivity were correlated with a low amount of tumor necrosis indicating the importance of viable tumor tissue for the accumulation of the radiolabel in this particular animal model.
    Keywords: Bone Neoplasms -- Metabolism ; Cyanoacrylates -- Metabolism ; Osteosarcoma -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 15206017
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, October 1984, Vol.73(10), pp.1433-7
    Description: Surfactant-coated polymethyl [2-14C]methacrylate nanoparticles had significantly different time-course distribution patterns in rats than noncoated and albumin-coated particles. Blood concentrations of poloxamer 188-coated particles were 70-fold higher after 30 min, and the particles persisted at higher levels in the circulation for up to 2 h. The initial and final liver levels were significantly lower (38% after 30 min, 51% after 7 d) and spleen levels were significantly higher (21% after 30 min, 23% after 7 d) than non-coated particles (74% in the liver and 5% in the spleen after 7 d) and the albumin-coated particles (84% in the liver and 5% in the spleen after 7 d). Specific activity was somewhat higher for the surfactant-coated particles in other organs such as the lungs, kidneys, testicles, ovaries, and lymph nodes. The bovine serum albumin sorption behavior of polymethyl methacrylate nanoparticles was followed under various conditions, and adsorption was found to increase with increasing protein concentration and increasing temperature, reaching a maximum at the isoelectric point of pH 4.9 after approximately 12 h of incubation. The zeta potential of the particles decreased with increasing pH, and the change was more pronounced with the albumin-coated particles.
    Keywords: Methylmethacrylates -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 15206017
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, August 1992, Vol.81(8), pp.736-743
    Description: The disposition of minoxidil and propylene glycol from topical solutions was measured by using an in vitro mass balance technique. The experimental approach included assessment of the following compartments of the skin and the diffusion cell as a function of time: (1) donor compartment; (2) hairless mouse skin surface, epidermis, and dermis; and (3) receiver compartment. Excellent mass balance was achieved for minoxidil at three doses. However, the recovery of propylene glycol depended on both application volume and time. The experiment involving the evaporation of propylene glycol and water from the propylene glycol:ethanol:water (20:60:20, v/v) mixture, which was placed in the well of a tissue culture plate at room temperature and 37 degrees C, substantiated the loss of vehicles to the air. When a thin application of 20 microL/cm2 was used, 60% of the propylene glycol was unaccounted for after 16 h. The evaporation of propylene glycol concentrated the solution to supersaturation, precipitated out the drug, and then stabilized the thermodynamic activity of the drug in the vehicle. The amount of formulation applied influences the rate of concentration and, thus, the time at which minoxidil precipitates. The precipitation limits the amount of minoxidil that can be absorbed and leads to poor percutaneous absorption of drug from the formulation.
    Keywords: Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 1520-6017
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, November 1976, Vol.65(11), pp.1624-7
    Description: Poly(methyl methacrylate) adjuvants, prepared by polymerizing monomeric methyl methacrylate in the presence of influenza virions or by addition of the virions to previously polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) particles, were studied by means of the hemagglutination test, antibody binding, and electron microscopy. The results indicated that the virions were coated partly when the polymerization was carried out in the presence of the virus, whereas the virions were probably adsorbed when added to polymerized particles.
    Keywords: Adjuvants, Immunologic -- Chemical Synthesis ; Methylmethacrylates -- Chemical Synthesis
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 15206017
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, November 1979, Vol.68(11), pp.1443-7
    Description: The organ distribution of poly(methyl-2-14C-methacrylate) nanoparticles after 0.5,1,2,6, and 24hr and after 7 days, as well as the elimination of degradation products in urine, feces, and breath, was measured for 7 days after intravenous administration to rats. The radioactivity was determined quantitatively after preparation of the organs and qualitatively by macroautoradiography. In addition, nanoparticle distribution after intramuscular administration to mice was determined by macroautoradiography after 7, 35, and 70 days. Thirty minutes after intravenous administration, the nanoparticles were found in the lungs in high concentrations (758 μg/g fresh weight ≈︁ 22% of the administered dose); 60% (261 μg/g) of the dose was found in the liver. During the first 7 days, the concentration in the lungs decreased from 758 to 284 μg/g while the concentration in the liver increased from 261 to 372 μg/g (≈︁ 68% of the administered dose), the concentration in the spleen increased from 33 to 131 μg/g (μ 4%), and the concentration in the bones increased from 3 to 6 μg/g. In all other organs and tissues, the radioactivity decreased significantly. During the first 7 days after intravenous administration, 1% of the administered dose was eliminated in the urine, 3.5% in the feces, and 1% in the breath. After intramuscular administration, all of the 14C-radioactivity still present in the body persisted at the injection site for 70 days.
    Keywords: Methylmethacrylates -- Analogs & Derivatives
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 15206017
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