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  • Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2010, Vol.173(3), pp.353-359
    Description: In most plant species, nutrient uptake is facilitated upon root association with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The aim of the present experiment was to test how the form in which nitrogen (N) is supplied to the growth medium affects substrate pH, AM development, and contribution of the symbiosis to phosphorus (P) uptake from sparingly available or soluble resources. Cowpea ( L. Walp) plants inoculated or noninoculated with AM fungi ( sp.) were grown in pots with a sand substrate supplied with nutrient solution. The nutrient solution was prepared either with a high or a low concentration of soluble P, and NO‐N : NH‐N ratios of 9:1 or 5:5. The substrate supplied with low‐P nutrient solution was either or not additionally amended with ground rock phosphate. Despite a high level of root colonization, AM fungi used in the present study did not appear to increase plant availability of rock phosphate. It cannot be excluded that the ability of AM root systems to acquire P from sparingly available resources differs depending on the plant and fungal genotypes or environmental conditions. The absence from the growth substrate of P‐solubilizing microorganisms able to associate with AM mycelia might also have been a reason for this observation in our study. Increased supply of NH relative to NO improved plant P availability from rock phosphate, but also had a negative effect on the extent of AM‐fungal root colonization, irrespective of the plant P‐nutritional status. Whether increasing levels of NH can also negatively affect the functioning of the AM symbiosis in terms of plant element uptake, pathogen protection or soil‐structure stabilization deserves further investigation.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza ; Nitrate‐To‐Ammonium Ratio ; Rock Phosphate ; Vigna Unguiculata
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2016, Vol.179(2), pp.129-135
    Description: Phosphorus is one of the major limiting factors of primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems and, thus, the P demand of plants might be among the most important drivers of soil and ecosystem development. The P cycling in forest ecosystems seems an ideal example to illustrate the concept of ecosystem nutrition. Ecosystem nutrition combines and extents the traditional concepts of nutrient cycling and ecosystem ecology. The major extension is to consider also the loading and unloading of nutrient cycles and the impact of nutrient acquiring and recycling processes on overall ecosystem properties. Ecosystem nutrition aims to integrate nutrient related aspects at different scales and in different ecosystem compartments including all processes, interactions and feedbacks associated with the nutrition of an ecosystem. We review numerous previous studies dealing with P nutrition from this ecosystem nutrition perspective. The available information contributes to the description of basic ecosystem characteristics such as emergence, hierarchy, and robustness. In result, we were able to refine Odum's hypothesis on P nutrition strategies along ecosystem succession to substrate related ecosystem nutrition and development. We hypothesize that at sites rich in mineral‐bound P, plant and microbial communities tend to introduce P from primary minerals into the biogeochemical P cycle (acquiring systems), and hence the tightness of the P cycle is of minor relevance for ecosystem functioning. In contrast, tight P recycling is a crucial emergent property of forest ecosystems established at sites poor in mineral bound P (recycling systems). We conclude that the integration of knowledge on nutrient cycling, soil science, and ecosystem ecology into holistic ecosystem nutrition will provide an entirely new view on soil–plant–microbe interactions.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Properties ; P Recycling ; P Nutrition Strategy ; Forest Nutrition ; P Acquiring
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2019, Vol.182(4), pp.647-655
    Description: In terrestrial ecosystems, plants are frequently in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) with mineral nutrients and photosynthesis carbon exchanges in between. This research sought to identify the effects of phosphorus (P) levels on the nitrogen (N) uptake extraradical mycelium (ERM) and the mycorrhizal growth response (MGR) of maize plants within the AMF symbiosis. Pots were separated into root compartments and hyphae compartments (HCs) with two layers of a 30‐μm mesh membrane and an air gap in between, where only hyphae could pass through, to avoid both N diffusion and root growth effects. Maize plants were inoculated with with different N fertilization in HCs under two different P fertilization levels. Our results indicated that a strong increase in MGR with low‐P fertilization. The same tendency was not observed with high‐P fertilization, although both had a large increase in P concentration as a potential source of growth in shoot tissue of mycorrhizal plants. Substantial effects (10.5% more N) were observed in the case of high‐P availability for the host plants from ERM fed with N, whereas under low‐P conditions ERM may prioritize P uptake rather than N uptake. The AM fungi increase the uptake of N and P, which are most limiting in the soil with fewer forces from soil resources. In addition, there was still more P accumulated than N due to the high N for ERM with high‐P supply. Low N in HCs corresponded with a lower colonization rate in roots but with high hyphae density in HCs; this result suggest that N and P availability might change the ratio of extraradical to intraradical hyphae length.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis ; Extraradical Hyphae ; Mycorrhizal Growth Response ; Mycorrhizal Hyphae ; Nitrogen Uptake ; Phosphorus Uptake
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, December 2007, Vol.170(6), pp.762-768
    Description: In recent years, interest has grown in cultivating species with enhanced health benefits and/or distinct flavor. Concentrations of phytochemicals determining these desired characteristics may be influenced by nitrogen forms (ammonium or nitrate) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We examined these relations with the test plant bunching onion ( L.). Three different ammonium‐to‐nitrate (NH : NO) ratios were supplied in combination with or without inoculation with an AM fungus (). The plants were evaluated for dry weight, leaf number, and content of nutrients (N, NO, P, S), sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose), and organosulfur compounds (measured as pyruvic acid). The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Plants were grown on perlite amended twice a day with nutrient solution. In nonmycorrhizal plants, the application of nutrient solution with predominant NO or NHNO as N source supported adequate growth of while predominant NH supply resulted in decreased growth and occurrence of wilting symptoms. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased dry weight and leaf number of predominantly NH‐fed or NHNO‐fed plants. While shoot P concentration increased with higher NH supply, shoot N concentration increased in predominantly NH‐fed plants only. Nitrogen form and AM colonization had little effect on shoot S or sugar concentrations. The total content in organosulfur compounds was significantly affected by both, N form and AM colonization. The optimal growth condition for a high formation of organosulfur compounds in this experiment was a nutrient solution with predominant NO supply, but when supported by AM fungi, produced similar amounts of pyruvic acid in NHNO‐fed plants.
    Keywords: Am Fungi ; Ammonium ; Nitrate ; Organosulfur Compounds ; Pyruvic Acid
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 1999, Vol.162(3), pp.301-307
    Description: To understand the effect of increased soil N supply on tree growth and nutrient uptake, three‐year‐old Norway spruce seedlings were grown in pots on low‐nutrient mineral forest soil supplemented with N in mineral or organic form. Outdoor shaded growth conditions were used, to test the hypothesis that shaded plants are particularly susceptible to high soil N supply. Plants were harvested eleven months after planting. Shoot growth was not affected by the N supply, but N concentrations in needles and roots were increased in plants supplied with mineral N (150 or 300 mg N [kg soil]). Root growth was drastically reduced and root/shoot ratios were decreased in plants with higher N uptake. A high supply of mineral N to soil also decreased the concentrations of other essential elements (P, K) in the needles and thus had effects on plant growth which may impair the stress resistance of trees. Organic N in the form of keratin (150 mg N [kg soil]) did not influence plant growth significantly. The adverse effects of high mineral N supply were particularly pronounced under shaded conditions in comparison to results from other experiments using higher light intensity and temperature conditions. Einfluß des Stickstoffangebots im Boden auf Wachstum und Nährstoffaufnahme von Jungfichten unter schattigen Bedingungen Die Auswirkungen eines erhöhten Stickstoffangebots auf Wachstum und Nährstoffaufnahme von dreijährigen Fichtenjungpflanzen wurden in einem Gefäßversuch unter schattigen Freilandbedingungen untersucht. Dabei wurde die Vermutung getestet, daß beschattete Fichten besonders empfindlich auf ein hohes Stickstoffangebot reagieren. Nach elf Monaten Versuchsdauer hatte die Stickstoffversorgung des Bodens keinen signifikanten Einfluß auf das Sproßwachstum. Die Stickstoffkonzentrationen in Nadeln und Wurzeln waren jedoch erhöht, wenn dem Boden mineralischer Stickstoff zugegeben worden war (150 bzw. 300 mg N [kg Boden]). Die mit mineralischem Stickstoff versorgten Pflanzen zeigten ein stark vermindertes Wurzelwachstum und ein verringertes Wurzel‐/Sproßverhältnis. In diesen Pflanzen waren auch die Nadelkonzentrationen an Phosphor und Kalium deutlich vermindert. Keratin als organische Stickstoffquelle (150 mg N [kg Boden]) hatte keinen Einfluß auf das Baumwachstum. Die negativen Effekte hoher Gehalte an mineralischem Stickstoff im Boden waren in diesem Versuch stärker ausgeprägt als in ähnlichen Versuchen unter optimalen Licht‐ und Temperaturbedingungen.
    Keywords: Ammonium ; Induced Nutrient Deficiency ; Nitrate ; Picea Abies ; Root Growth ; Shoot/Root Ratio
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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