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  • Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2018, Vol.181(2), pp.177-184
    Description: Drying and rewetting (D/W) of soils often resulted in the release of soluble phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), thereby changing the availability of both nutrients. Most experiments on D/W have been conducted with disturbed mineral soil samples and with rewetting of the soil samples by abrupt change in the water potential. Here, we studied the effect of D/W on the leaching of P and N from undisturbed forest floors of a European beech and a Norway spruce site under near field conditions of desiccation and rewetting. We hypothesized that even under realistic rewetting of undisturbed forest floors, the leaching of P and N is increased after D/W and that the effects are less pronounced for spruce than for beech because of the larger hydrophobicity of the spruce forest floor. Undisturbed forest floor columns were subjected to desiccation at 20°C until a matrix potential of –100 MPa (pF 6.0) was reached, while controls were kept at moist conditions. Columns were irrigated by 22 mm day from day 1–3 and by 10 mm day from day 4–14 given in automated short pulses. Leachates from the soil columns were analyzed for orthophosphate, total P, NH, NO, and total N. In the spruce forest floor the concentrations of total P in leachates and the leachate fluxes were strongly increased after D/W. The increase of solute P was less for beech than for spruce coinciding with less actual rewetting of the beech forest floor. Leaching of total N from the spruce forest floor was not affected by D/W, however, concentrations and leaching of NH increased, while leaching of NO decreased. For beech the leaching of total N and NH increased after D/W, while NO leaching decreased. The results indicate that also under realistic conditions, D/W of forest floors increases solute P and leads to changes in the ratio of NH/NO in solution, thereby altering the availability of the nutrients.
    Keywords: Beech ; Desiccation ; Leaching ; Organic Layer ; Soil Solution ; Spruce
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2016, Vol.179(5), pp.670-678
    Description: Drying–rewetting cycles (D/W) occur frequently in topsoils and may mobilize phosphorus (P). We investigated the effect of repeated D/W on the release of dissolved inorganic (DIP) and organic P (DOP) from forest floors and A horizons. Samples were taken from 3 European beech sites and from 3 Norway spruce sites. Soils were desiccated up to pF 6 (–100 MPa) in three D/W cycles in the laboratory, while the controls were kept permanently at 50% water holding capacity. After each drying, P was extracted from the soils in water. D/W caused the release of DIP and DOP especially from O layers. There was no general difference in response to D/W between samples from beech and spruce. The net release of DIP after D/W was largest from the Oe horizons (average 50–60 mg P kg) for both beech and spruce forest soils. The net release of DIP from Oi layers was on average 7.8 mg P kg and from spruce Oa layers 21.1 mg P kg. In the A horizons, net DIP release was similar in beech and spruce soils with 0.4 mg P kg. The release of DOP was less than the release of DIP except for the A horizons. Repeated cycles did not increase the release of DIP and DOP. The release of DIP and DOP was positively correlated with the microbial biomass in Oe and Oa layers but not in Oi layers. Our results suggest that D/W may significantly influence the short term availability of dissolved P in both beech and spruce forest soils.
    Keywords: Drying–Rewetting ; Dissolved Inorganic Phosphorus Dip ; Dissolved Organic Phosphorus Dop ; Microbial Biomass ; Forest Soils
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2014, Vol.177(4), pp.566-572
    Description: In temperate forest soils, N net mineralization has been extensively investigated during the growing season, whereas N cycling during winter was barely addressed. Here, we quantified net ammonification and nitrification during the dormant season by and laboratory incubations in soils of a temperate European beech and a Norway spruce forest. Further, we compared temperature dependency of N net mineralization in field incubations with those from laboratory incubations at controlled temperatures. From November to April, N net mineralization of the organic and upper mineral horizons amounted to 10.9 kg N (ha · 6 months) in the spruce soil and to 44.3 kg N (ha · 6 months) in the beech soil, representing 65% (beech) and 26% (spruce) of the annual above ground litterfall. N net mineralization was largest in the Oi/Oe horizon and lowest in the A and EA horizons. Net nitrification in the beech soil [1.5 kg N (ha · 6 months)] was less than in the spruce soil [5.9 kg N (ha · 6 months)]. In the range of soil temperatures observed in the field (0–8°C), the temperature dependency of N net mineralization was generally high for both soils and more pronounced in the laboratory incubations than in the incubations. We suggest that homogenization of laboratory samples increased substrate availability and, thus, enhanced the temperature response of N net mineralization. In temperate forest soils, N net mineralization during the dormant season contributes substantially to the annual N cycling, especially in deciduous sites with large amounts of litterfall immediately before the dormant season. High Q values of N net mineralization at low temperatures suggest a huge effect of future increasing winter temperature on the N cycle in temperate forests.
    Keywords: Winter ; Net Ammonification ; Net Nitrification ; Incubation ; Norway Spruce ; European Beech
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2014, Vol.177(2), pp.168-177
    Description: Soil drought influences the C turnover as well as the fine‐root system of tree saplings. Particularly during the period of establishment, the susceptibility to drought stress of saplings is increased because of incompletely developed root systems and reduced access to soil water. Here, we subjected beech saplings ( L.) to different levels of drought stress. Beech saplings were planted in rhizotrons, which were installed in the soil of a Norway spruce forest before bud burst. Soil moisture was manipulated in the following year during May to September. We measured photosynthetic net CO uptake, volume production of fine roots, and rhizosphere respiration during the growing season. Biometric parameters of the fine‐root system, biomass, and nonstructural carbohydrates were analyzed upon harvest in October. Photosynthesis and rhizosphere respiration decreased with increasing drought‐stress dose (cumulated soil water potential), and cumulative rhizosphere respiration was significantly negatively correlated with drought‐stress dose. Fine‐root length and volume production were highest at moderate soil drought, but decreased at severe soil drought. The proportion of fine‐roots diameter 〈 0.2 mm and the root‐to‐shoot ratio increased whereas the live‐to‐dead ratio of fine roots decreased with increasing drought‐stress dose. We conclude that the belowground C allocation as well as the relative water‐uptake efficiency of beech saplings is increased under drought.
    Keywords: Drought Stress ; European Beech ; Fine Roots ; Rhizosphere Respiration ; Rhizotrons
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2008, Vol.171(5), pp.665-665
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2016, Vol.179(2), pp.129-135
    Description: Phosphorus is one of the major limiting factors of primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems and, thus, the P demand of plants might be among the most important drivers of soil and ecosystem development. The P cycling in forest ecosystems seems an ideal example to illustrate the concept of ecosystem nutrition. Ecosystem nutrition combines and extents the traditional concepts of nutrient cycling and ecosystem ecology. The major extension is to consider also the loading and unloading of nutrient cycles and the impact of nutrient acquiring and recycling processes on overall ecosystem properties. Ecosystem nutrition aims to integrate nutrient related aspects at different scales and in different ecosystem compartments including all processes, interactions and feedbacks associated with the nutrition of an ecosystem. We review numerous previous studies dealing with P nutrition from this ecosystem nutrition perspective. The available information contributes to the description of basic ecosystem characteristics such as emergence, hierarchy, and robustness. In result, we were able to refine Odum's hypothesis on P nutrition strategies along ecosystem succession to substrate related ecosystem nutrition and development. We hypothesize that at sites rich in mineral‐bound P, plant and microbial communities tend to introduce P from primary minerals into the biogeochemical P cycle (acquiring systems), and hence the tightness of the P cycle is of minor relevance for ecosystem functioning. In contrast, tight P recycling is a crucial emergent property of forest ecosystems established at sites poor in mineral bound P (recycling systems). We conclude that the integration of knowledge on nutrient cycling, soil science, and ecosystem ecology into holistic ecosystem nutrition will provide an entirely new view on soil–plant–microbe interactions.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Properties ; P Recycling ; P Nutrition Strategy ; Forest Nutrition ; P Acquiring
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2004, Vol.167(3), pp.277-283
    Description: Elevated atmospheric inputs of NH and NO have caused N saturation of many forest ecosystems in Central Europe, but the fate of deposited N that is not bounded by trees remains largely unknown. It is expected that an increase of NO leaching from forest soils may harm the quality of groundwater in many regions. The objective of this study was to analyze the input and output of NH and NO at 57 sites with mature forest stands in Germany. These long‐term study sites are part of the European Level II program and comprise 17 beech, 14 spruce, 17 pine, and 9 oak stands. The chloride balance method was used to calculate seepage fluxes and inorganic N leaching below the rooting zone for the period from 1996 to 2001. Nitrogen input by throughfall was significantly different among most forest types, and was in the order: spruce 〉 beech/oak 〉 pine. These differences can be largely explained by the amount of precipitation and, thus, it mirrors the regional and climatic distribution of these forest types in Germany. Mean long‐term N output with seepage was log‐normal distributed, and ranged between 0 and 26.5 kg N ha yr, whereby 29 % of the sites released more than 5 kg N ha yr . Leaching of inorganic N was only significantly lower in the pine stands ( 25 (median of 0.8 kg N ha yr). The stratification improved the correlation between N input and N output for sites with C : N ratios 25 was weaker (r = 0.21) compared with the complete data set. Our results suggest that NO leaching may increase in soils with wide C : N ratios when N deposition remains on a high level and that the potential to store inorganic N decreases with C : N ratios in the O horizons becoming more narrow. Nitratauswaschung aus Waldböden: eine Analyse von Dauerbeobachtungsflächen in Deutschland Erhöhte NH‐ und NO‐Einträge haben zu einer N‐Sättigung vieler Wälder in Mitteleuropa geführt. Der Verbleib des deponierten Stickstoffs, der nicht in den Bäumen gebunden ist, ist jedoch weitgehend unbekannt. Es wird angenommen, dass ein Anstieg der NO‐Auswaschung aus Waldböden die Grundwasserqualität in vielen Regionen gefährdet. In dieser Studie wurden die Eintrags‐ und Austragsraten von NH und NO von 57 Waldflächen in Deutschland analysiert. Diese Dauerbeobachtungsflächen sind Teil des europäischen Level‐II‐Programms und setzen sich aus 17 Buchen‐, 14 Fichten‐, 17 Kiefern‐ und 9 Eichenbeständen zusammen. Die Cl‐Bilanz‐Methode wurde angewandt, um die Sickerwassermengen unterhalb des Wurzelraumes für die Periode von 1996 bis 2001 zu berechnen. Die N‐Einträge waren in vielen Waldtypen signifikant unterschiedlich und zeigten folgende Ordnung: Fichte 〉 Buche/Eiche 〉 Kiefer. Diese Unterschiede können weitgehend mit der Niederschlagsmenge erklärt werden und spiegeln somit die regionale und klimatische Verteilung dieser Waldtypen in Deutschland wider. Der mittlere, langjährige N‐Austrag war log‐normal verteilt and variierte zwischen 0 und 26,5 kg N ha a, wobei 29 % der Flächen mehr als 5 kg N ha a freisetzten. Nur die Kiefernbestände wiesen eine signifikant ( 25 (Median von 0,8 kg N ha a). Im Vergleich zu dem gesamten Datensatz verbesserte die Stratifizierung der Daten nur die Beziehung zwischen N‐Eintrag und N‐Austrag für Flächen mit einem C:N‐Verhältnis 25 schwächer (r = 0,21) war. Unsere Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die NO‐Auswaschung in deutschen Wäldern mit weiten C:N‐Verhältnissen in der Humusauflage zunehmen kann, sofern die N‐Deposition auf einem hohen Niveau verbleibt. Ferner kann das Potenzial der Wälder, anorganischen N zu speichern, mit enger werdenden C:N‐Verhältnissen in den Humusauflagen abnehmen.
    Keywords: Nitrate Leaching ; N Input ; N Output ; N Saturation ; Forest Soils ; O Horizon
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, February 2004, Vol.167(1), pp.33-38
    Description: Broad industrial application of organotin compounds (OTC) leads to their release into the environment. OTC are deposited from the atmosphere into forest ecosystems and may accumulate in soils. Here, we studied the degradation of methyltin and butyltin compounds in a forest floor, a mineral, and a wetland soil with incubation experiments at 20 °C in the dark. OTC degraded slowly in soils with half‐lives estimated from 0.5 to 15 years. The first order degradation rate constants of OTC in soils ranged from 0.05 to 1.54 yr. The degradation rates in soils were generally in the order mono‐ ≥ di‐ 〉 tri‐substituted OTC. Stepwise dealkylation was observed in all cases of di‐substituted OTC, but only in some cases of tri‐substituted OTC. Decomposition rates of OTC in the forest floor were higher than in wetland and mineral soils. Tetramethyltin in the gas phase was not detected, suggesting little tin methylation in the wetland soils. Slow degradation of OTC in soils might lead to long‐term storage of atmospherically deposited OTC in soils. Abbau von Organozinn‐Verbindungen in organischen und mineralischen Waldböden Vielfältige industrielle Anwendungen von Organozinn‐Verbindungen (OTC) haben zu ihrer Verbreitung in der Umwelt geführt. OTC gelangen durch atmosphärische Deposition in Waldökosysteme und können dort in den Böden akkumulieren. Verschiedene OTC wurden in einer Humusauflage, einem Mineralboden sowie einem Moorboden bei 20 °C in Dunkelheit inkubiert. Der Abbau der OTC erfolgte nur langsam mit Halbwertzeiten von 0,5 bis 15 Jahren. Die Abbaukonstanten 1. Ordnung lagen zwischen 0,05 und 1,54 Jahr. Di‐subtituierte OTC unterlagen einer schrittweisen Dealkylierung, die bei tri‐substituierten Spezies nur teilweise gefunden werden konnte. Die Abbauraten in der Humusauflage waren höher als die im Moorboden bzw. im Mineralboden. Der Abbau war allgemein in der Reihfolge mono‐ ≥ di‐ 〉 tri‐substituierte OTC. Tetramethylzinn wurde nicht in der Gasphase beobachtet, eine Zinn‐Methylierung in Moorböden ist somit unwahrscheinlich. Der langsame Abbau von Organoizinn‐Verbindungen macht einen langfristigen Verbleib der untersuchten Organozinn‐Verbindungen in terrestrischen und semiterrestrischen Böden wahrscheinlich.
    Keywords: Organotin Compounds ; Degradation ; Forest Floor ; Mineral Soil ; Fen
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2008, Vol.171(5), pp.699-706
    Description: Freezing and thawing may substantially influence the rates of C and N cycling in soils, and soil frost was proposed to induce NO losses with seepage from forest ecosystems. Here, we test the hypothesis that freezing and thawing triggers N and dissolved organic matter (DOM) release from a forest soil after thawing and that low freezing temperatures enhance the effect. Undisturbed soil columns were taken from a soil at a Norway spruce site either comprising only O horizons or O horizons + mineral soil horizons. The columns were subjected to three cycles of freezing and thawing at temperatures of –3°C, –8°C, and –13°C. The control columns were kept at constant +5°C. Following the frost events, the columns were irrigated for 20 d at a rate of 4 mm d. Percolates were analyzed for total N, mineral N, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The total amount of mineral N extracted from the O horizons in the control amounted to 8.6 g N m during the experimental period of 170 d. Frost reduced the amount of mineral N leached from the soil columns with –8°C and –13°C being most effective. In these treatments, only 3.1 and 4.0 g N m were extracted from the O horizons. Net nitrification was more negatively affected than net ammonification. Severe soil frost increased the release of DOC from the O horizons, but the effect was only observed in the first freeze–thaw cycle. We found no evidence for lysis of microorganisms after soil frost. Our experiment did not confirm the hypothesis that soil frost increases N mineralization after thawing. The total amount of additionally released DOC was rather low in relation to the expected annual fluxes.
    Keywords: Freezing ; Thawing ; N Mineralization ; Nitrification ; Dissolved Organic Carbon
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 13 October 2003, Vol.166(5), pp.585-593
    Description: Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes an important carbon input flux to forested mineral soils. Seepage from mineral subsoils contains only small amounts of DOC because of mineralization, sorption or the formation of particulate organic matter (POM). However, the relation between these processes is largely unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the mineralization of DOC from different depths of forest soils, and to determine degradation rate constants for rapidly and slowly degradable DOC pools. Mineralization of DOC and formation of POM in mineral soil solution from two forested sites in northern Bavaria (Germany) were quantified in a 97 days laboratory incubation experiment. Furthermore, spectroscopic properties such as specific UV absorption and a humification index derived from fluorescence emission spectrometry were measured before and after incubation. DOC in all samples turned out to belong mainly to the stable DOC pool (〉 95 %) with half‐lives ranging from years to decades. Spectroscopic properties were not suitable to predict the mineralization of DOC from mineral soils. However, together with data on DOC from the forest floor and long‐term data on DOC concentrations in the field they helped to identify the processes involved in C sequestration in mineral subsoils. Mineralization, formation of POM, and probably sorption seem all to be responsible for maintaining low concentrations of DOC in the upper mineral soil. DOC below the upper mineral soil is highly resistant to mineralization, and thus the further decrease of DOC concentrations in the subsoil as observed under field conditions cannot be attributed to mineralization. Our results suggest that sorption and to some minor extent the formation of POM may be responsible for C sequestration in the subsoil. Mineralisation gelösten organischen Kohlenstoffs in Mineralbodenlösungen zweier Waldstandorte Gelöster organischer Kohlenstoff (DOC) stellt einen bedeutenden Kohlenstoffeintrag in Mineralböden von Wäldern dar. Bodenlösung tiefer Mineralbodenhorizonte enthält jedoch nur geringe Konzentrationen an DOC. Inwieweit dies das Resultat einer starken Mineralisation von DOC ist oder auf eine Festlegung des DOC durch Sorption oder Bildung partikulärer organischer Substanz (POM) zurückgeht, ist weitgehend unklar. Ziel dieser Studie war daher, die Mineralisation von DOC aus verschiedenen Mineralbodentiefen zu untersuchen, und Abbaukonstanten labiler und stabiler DOC‐Pools zu bestimmen. In einem 97tägigen Labor‐Inkubationsversuch mit Mineralbodenlösung aus verschiedenen Tiefen zweier Waldstandorte in Nordbayern (Deutschland) wurden die Mineralisation von DOC und die Bildung von POM untersucht. Spektroskopische Eigenschaften des DOC wie die spezifische UV‐Absorption und ein aus Emissions‐Fluoreszenz‐Spektren abgeleiteter Humifizierungsindex vor und nach der Inkubation wurden ebenfalls bestimmt. DOC in allen Proben erwies sich als schwer abbaubar. Der überwiegende Teil (〉 95 %) konnte dem stabilen DOC‐Pool mit Halbwertzeiten in der Größenordnung von Jahren bis Jahrzehnten zugeordnet werden. Eine Vorhersage der Abbaubarkeit anhand spektroskopischer Eigenschaften von DOC ist für Mineralbodenlösungen nicht möglich. Spektroskopische Eigenschaften erwiesen sich jedoch zusammen mit Daten über DOC der Humusauflage und Langzeit‐Felddaten über DOC‐Konzentrationen im Mineralboden als hilfreich bei der Identifikation der Prozesse, die für die C‐Festlegung im Mineralboden verantwortlich sind. Für das Absinken der DOC‐Konzentrationen im oberen Mineralboden scheinen alle drei Prozesse Mineralisation, Bildung von POM und Sorption verantwortlich zu sein. Die weitere Verringerung der DOC‐Konzentrationen im Unterboden scheint weniger auf Mineralisation als vielmehr auf Sorption und in geringerem Maße auf die Bildung von POM zurückzugehen.
    Keywords: Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Mineralization ; Mineral Soil Solution
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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