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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, Jan, 2012, Vol.12(1), p.3(21)
    Description: Byline: Thilo Rennert (1), Kai U. Totsche (1), Katja Heister (2), Michael Kersten (3), Jurgen Thieme (4) Keywords: AFM; Interfaces; uCT; NanoSIMS; Soils; X-ray microscopy Abstract: Purpose Biogeochemical interfaces, the 3D association of minerals, soil organic matter, and biota, are hotspots of soil processes because they exhibit strong biological, physical, and chemical gradients. Biogeochemical interfaces have thicknesses from nanometers to micrometers and separate bulk immobile phases from mobile liquid or gaseous phases. The aim of this contribution is to review advanced microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques that allow for spatially resolved analysis of composition and properties of biogeochemical interfaces or their visualization. Materials and methods From the variety of techniques to study biogeochemical interfaces in soil, we focus on X-ray spectromicroscopy, nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, micro-X-ray tomography, and positron emission tomography. Beside an introduction into the respective method, we review published applications and give practical examples. Results and discussion The development of terrestrial soils involves the formation of biogeochemical interfaces as the result of the complex 3D interplay of primary and secondary minerals, soil organic matter together with soil biota. X-ray microscopy allows for the visualization of structures down to range of 10--30 nm and for the determination of binding states of elements. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry is capable of simultaneously analyzing up to seven secondary ion species to give the elemental and isotopic composition down to 50--150 nm. Atomic force microscopy enables to study the topography and mechanical properties (softness, elasticity, plasticity, deformability) of soil particle surfaces down to the nm scale. X-ray micro-tomography has been shown to visualize the interior of materials at the sub-micrometer scale successfully. Conclusions Introducing and adapting the discussed methods in soil science has increased the understanding of formation, properties, and functioning of biogeochemical interfaces in soil. A further challenging task is to utilize further promising techniques, e.g., advanced Raman techniques or atomic probe tomography with the highest spatial resolution for 3D compositional information of any microscopy technique. Author Affiliation: (1) LS Hydrogeologie, Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, Burgweg 11, 07749, Jena, Germany (2) Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85350, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany (3) Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz, Becherweg 21, 55099, Mainz, Germany (4) NSLS-II Project, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973, USA Article History: Registration Date: 09/08/2011 Received Date: 01/07/2011 Accepted Date: 09/08/2011 Online Date: 30/08/2011
    Keywords: Mass Spectrometry -- Methods ; Soil Carbon -- Methods ; Nanotechnology -- Methods ; Atomic Force Microscopy -- Methods
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 16147480
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, Jan, 2012, Vol.12(1), p.1(2)
    Description: Byline: Kai U. Totsche (1), Karin Eusterhues (1), Thilo Rennert (1) Author Affiliation: (1) LS Hydrogeologie, Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, Burgweg 11, 07749, Jena, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 11/08/2011 Received Date: 18/07/2011 Accepted Date: 11/08/2011 Online Date: 25/08/2011
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 1/2012, Vol.12(1), pp.1-2
    Description: Understanding and visualizing the architecture of biochemical interfaces in soil, enlightening the processes affecting their formation and maturation, and elucidating the processes occurring on biogeochemical interfaces have thus been identified as an emerging decadal challenge in soil science.
    Keywords: Soil Sciences ; Biogeochemistry;
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2012, Vol.12(1), pp.3-23
    Description: Journal Article.
    Keywords: AFM ; Interfaces ; μCT ; NanoSIMS ; Soils ; X-ray microscopy
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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