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  • 1
    In: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 2014, Vol.76(4), pp.1122-1130
    Description: BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in whether routine whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) imaging produces different patient outcomes in blunt trauma patients when compared with selective imaging. This article aimed to systematically review the literature for all outcomes measured in comparing WBCT with selective imaging in trauma patients and to evaluate the comprehensiveness of relevant dimensions for this comparison. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of studies comparing WBCT and selective imaging approaches during the initial assessment of multitrauma patients. Peer-reviewed studies including cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews were identified through large database searches and filtered through methodologic inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics, hypotheses and conclusions made, outcomes assessed, and references to potential benefits and harms were extracted. RESULTS: Eight retrospective cohort studies and two systematic reviews were identified. Six primary studies evaluated mortality as an outcome, and four studies found a significant difference in results favoring WBCT imaging over selective imaging. All five articles assessing various time intervals in hospital following imaging after injury found significantly reduced times with WBCT. Radiation exposure was found to be increased after WBCT imaging compared with selective imaging in the only study in which it was evaluated. The two systematic reviews analyzed the same three articles with regard to mortality but concluded differently about overall benefits. CONCLUSION: WBCT imaging seems to be associated with reduced times to events in hospital following traumatic injury and seems to be associated with decreased mortality. Whether this is a true effect mediated through an as yet unsubstantiated change in management or the result of hospital- or individual-level confounders is unclear. When evaluating these outcomes, it seems that the authors of both primary studies and systematic reviews have often been selective in their choice of short-term outcomes, painting an incomplete picture of the issue. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review, level III.
    Keywords: Disease Management ; Tomography, X-Ray Computed ; Multiple Trauma -- Diagnostic Imaging ; Whole Body Imaging -- Methods;
    ISSN: 2163-0755
    E-ISSN: 21630763
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 2013, Vol.75(4), pp.642-656
    Description: BACKGROUND: Patients with blunt head injury are at high risk of venous thromboembolism. However, pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis (PTP) may cause progression of intracranial hemorrhage, and clinicians must often weigh up the risks and benefits. This review aimed to determine whether adding PTP to mechanical prophylaxis confers net benefit or harm and the optimal timing, dose, and agent for PTP in patients with blunt head injury. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and www.clinicaltrials.gov on April 24, 2013, to identify controlled studies and ongoing trials that assessed the efficacy or safety of thromboprophylaxis interventions in the early management of head-injured patients. Studies were classified based on types of interventions and comparisons, and the quality of included studies was assessed using Cochrane risk-of-bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. We intended to undertake a meta-analysis if studies were sufficiently similar. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including four randomized controlled trials. At least two randomized controlled trials were at high risk of bias owing to inadequate randomization and concealment of allocation, and observational studies were potentially confounded by substantial differences between comparison groups. Heterogeneity of included studies precluded meta-analysis. Results were mixed, with some studies supporting and others refuting addition of PTP to mechanical interventions. Little evidence was available about dose or choice of agent. The safety and efficacy of early PTP in patients without early progression of hemorrhage is unclear. CONCLUSION: There is currently insufficient evidence to guide thromboprophylaxis in patients with blunt head injury. Standardized definitions and outcome measurements would facilitate comparison of outcomes across future studies. Studies in mixed populations should report head-injured specific subgroup data. Future randomized controlled trials should investigate the efficacy and safety of early pharmacologic prophylaxis in addition to mechanical intervention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review, level IV.
    Keywords: Anticoagulants–Adverse Effects ; Head Injuries, Closed–Therapeutic Use ; Humans–Complications ; Treatment Outcome–Drug Therapy ; Venous Thromboembolism–Etiology ; Venous Thromboembolism–Prevention & Control ; Abridged ; Anticoagulants;
    ISSN: 2163-0755
    E-ISSN: 21630763
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 2014, Vol.76(1), pp.101-106
    Description: BACKGROUND: Physiotherapy is integral to modern trauma care. Early physiotherapy and mobility have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with isolated injuries; however, the optimal intensity of physiotherapy in the multitrauma patient population has not yet been examined. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether an intensive physiotherapy program resulted in improved inpatient mobility. METHODS: We conducted a single-center prospective randomized controlled study of 90 consecutive patients admitted to the Alfred Hospital (a Level 1 trauma center) in Australia between October 2011 and June 2012 who could participate in ward-based physiotherapy. Participants were allocated to either usual care (daily physiotherapy treatment, approximately 30 minutes) or intensive physiotherapy (usual care plus two additional 30-minute treatments each day). The primary outcome measure was the modified Iowa Level of Assistance (mILOA) score, collected by a blinded assessor at Days 3 and 5 (or earlier if discharged). Secondary measures included physical readiness for discharge, hospital and rehabilitation length of stay, a patient confidence and satisfaction scale, and quality of life at 6 months. RESULTS: Groups were comparable at baseline. Participants in the intensive physiotherapy group achieved significantly improved mILOA scores on Day 3 (median, 7 points compared with 10 points; p = 0.02) and Day 5 (median, 7.5 points compared with 16 points; p = 0.04) and were more satisfied with their care (p = 0.01). There was no difference between groups in time to physical readiness, discharge destination, length of stay, or quality-of-life measures. CONCLUSION: Intensive physiotherapy resulted in improved mobility in trauma inpatients. Further studies are required to determine if specific groups benefit more from intensive physiotherapy and if this translates to long-term improvements in outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level 1.
    Keywords: Female–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Humans–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Injury Severity Score–Rehabilitation ; Length of Stay–Rehabilitation ; Male–Rehabilitation ; Middle Aged–Rehabilitation ; Mobility Limitation–Rehabilitation ; Physical Therapy Modalities–Rehabilitation ; Trauma Centers–Rehabilitation ; Treatment Outcome–Rehabilitation ; Wounds and Injuries–Rehabilitation ; Abridged;
    ISSN: 2163-0755
    E-ISSN: 21630763
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