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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 12 March 2010, Vol.285(11), pp.8084-93
    Description: The role of aldosterone has been implicated in the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The biological actions of aldosterone are mediated through mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Nuclear receptor-mediated gene expression is regulated by dynamic and coordinated recruitment of coactivators and corepressors. To identify new coregulators of the MR, full-length MR was used as bait in yeast two-hybrid screening. We isolated NF-YC, one of the subunits of heterotrimeric transcription factor NF-Y. Specific interaction between MR and NF-YC was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid, mammalian two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation assays, and fluorescence subcellular imaging. Transient transfection experiments in COS-7 cells demonstrated that NF-YC repressed MR transactivation in a hormone-sensitive manner. Moreover, reduction of NF-YC protein levels by small interfering RNA potentiated hormonal activation of endogenous target genes in stably MR-expressing cells, indicating that NF-YC functions as an agonist-dependent MR corepressor. The corepressor function of NF-YC is selective for MR, because overexpression of NF-YC did not affect transcriptional activity mediated by androgen, progesterone, or glucocorticoid receptors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that endogenous MR and steroid receptor coactivator-1 were recruited to an endogenous ENaC gene promoter in a largely aldosterone-dependent manner, and endogenous NF-YC was sequentially recruited to the same element. Immunohistochemistry showed that endogenous MR and NF-YC were colocalized within the mouse kidney. Although aldosterone induces interaction of the N and C termini of MR, NF-YC inhibited the N/C interaction. These findings indicate that NF-YC functions as a new corepressor of agonist-bound MR via alteration of aldosterone-induced MR conformation.
    Keywords: Aldosterone -- Metabolism ; Ccaat-Binding Factor -- Metabolism ; Hydrocortisone -- Metabolism ; Kidney Tubules, Collecting -- Metabolism ; Receptors, Mineralocorticoid -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219258
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 27 August 2004, Vol.279(35), pp.37163-74
    Description: ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase (ADPRase) catalyzes the divalent metal ion-dependent hydrolysis of ADP-ribose to ribose 5'-phosphate and AMP. This enzyme plays a key role in regulating the intracellular ADP-ribose levels, and prevents nonenzymatic ADP-ribosylation. To elucidate the pyrophosphatase hydrolysis mechanism employed by this enzyme, structural changes occurring on binding of substrate, metal and product were investigated using crystal structures of ADPRase from an extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus HB8. Seven structures were determined, including that of the free enzyme, the Zn(2+)-bound enzyme, the binary complex with ADP-ribose, the ternary complexes with ADP-ribose and Zn(2+) or Gd(3+), and the product complexes with AMP and Mg(2+) or with ribose 5'-phosphate and Zn(2+). The structural and functional studies suggested that the ADP-ribose hydrolysis pathway consists of four reaction states: bound with metal (I), metal and substrate (II), metal and substrate in the transition state (III), and products (IV). In reaction state II, Glu-82 and Glu-70 abstract a proton from a water molecule. This water molecule is situated at an ideal position to carry out nucleophilic attack on the adenosyl phosphate, as it is 3.6 A away from the target phosphorus and almost in line with the scissile bond.
    Keywords: Pyrophosphatases -- Chemistry ; Thermus Thermophilus -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083351X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 22 May 2009, Vol.284(21), pp.14326-36
    Description: The RAD51 protein is a central player in homologous recombinational repair. The RAD51B protein is one of five RAD51 paralogs that function in the homologous recombinational repair pathway in higher eukaryotes. In the present study, we found that the human EVL (Ena/Vasp-like) protein, which is suggested to be involved in actin-remodeling processes, unexpectedly binds to the RAD51 and RAD51B proteins and stimulates the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing and strand exchange. The EVL knockdown cells impaired RAD51 assembly onto damaged DNA after ionizing radiation or mitomycin C treatment. The EVL protein alone promotes single-stranded DNA annealing, and the recombination activities of the EVL protein are further enhanced by the RAD51B protein. The expression of the EVL protein is not ubiquitous, but it is significantly expressed in breast cancer-derived MCF7 cells. These results suggest that the EVL protein is a novel recombination factor that may be required for repairing specific DNA lesions, and that may cause tumor malignancy by its inappropriate expression.
    Keywords: Recombination, Genetic ; Cell Adhesion Molecules -- Metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins -- Metabolism ; Rad51 Recombinase -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083351X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 19 January 2007, Vol.282(3), pp.1998-2010
    Description: Molecular mechanisms underlying mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-mediated gene expression are not fully understood. Various transcription factors are post-translationally modified by small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1). We investigated the role of the SUMO-1-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 in MR transactivation. Yeast two-hybrid, GST-pulldown, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that Ubc9 interacted with N-terminal MR-(1-670). Endogenous Ubc9 is associated with stably expressing MR in 293-MR cells. Transient transfection assays in COS-1 cells showed that Ubc9 increased MR transactivation of reporter constructs containing MRE, ENaC, or MMTV promoter in a hormone-sensitive manner. Moreover, reduction of Ubc9 protein levels by small interfering RNA attenuated hormonal activation of a reporter construct as well as an endogenous target gene by MR. A sumoylation-inactive mutant Ubc9(C93S) similarly interacted with MR and potentiated aldosterone-dependent MR transactivation. An MR mutant in which four lysine residues within sumoylation motifs were mutated into arginine (K89R/K399R/K494R/K953R) failed to be sumoylated, but Ubc9 similarly enhanced transactivation by the mutant MR, indicating that sumoylation activity is dispensable for coactivation capacity of Ubc9. Coexpression of Ubc9 and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) synergistically enhanced MR-mediated transactivation in transient transfection assays. Indeed, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that endogenous MR, Ubc9, and SRC-1 were recruited to an endogenous ENaC gene promoter in a largely aldosterone-dependent manner. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed a complex of MR, Ubc9, and SRC-1 in mammalian cells, and the endogenous proteins were colocalized in the nuclei of the mouse collecting duct cells. These findings support a physiological role of Ubc9 as a transcriptional MR coactivator, beyond the known SUMO E2-conjugating enzyme.
    Keywords: Transcriptional Activation ; Receptors, Mineralocorticoid -- Metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083351X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 25 February 2005, Vol.280(8), pp.6721-30
    Description: Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is involved in the final steps of aldosterone biosynthesis and expressed exclusively in the adrenal zona glomerulosa cells. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we demonstrate that COUP-TFI binds to the -129/-114 element (Ad5) of human CYP11B2 promoter. Transient transfection in H295R adrenal cells demonstrated that COUP-TFI enhanced CYP11B2 reporter activity. However, the reporter construct with mutated Ad5 sequences showed reduced basal and COUP-TFI-enhanced activity, suggesting that binding of COUP-TFI to Ad5 is important for CYP11B2 transactivation. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of COUP-TFI-mediated activity, we subsequently screened for COUP-TFI-interacting proteins from a human adrenal cDNA library using a yeast two-hybrid system and identified Ubc9 and PIAS1, which have small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) conjugase and ligase activities, respectively. The coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed that COUP-TFI forms a complex with Ubc9 and PIAS1 in mammalian cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that Ubc9 and PIAS1 are markedly expressed in rat adrenal glomerulosa cells. Coexpression of Ubc9 and PIAS1 synergistically enhanced the COUP-TFI-mediated CYP11B2 reporter activity, indicating that both proteins function as coactivators of COUP-TFI. However, sumoylation-defective mutants, Ubc9 (C93S) and PIAS1 (C351S), continued to function as coactivators of COUP-TFI, indicating that sumoylation activity are separable from coactivator ability. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ectopically expressed COUP-TFI, Ubc9, and PIAS1 were recruited to an endogenous CYP11B2 promoter. Moreover, reduction of Ubc9 or PIAS1 protein levels by small interfering RNA inhibited the CYP11B2 transactivation by COUP-TFI. Our data support a physiological role of Ubc9 and PIAS1 as transcriptional coactivators in COUP-TFI-mediated CYP11B2 transcription.
    Keywords: Cytochrome P-450 Cyp11b2 -- Genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins -- Physiology ; Proteins -- Metabolism ; Transcription Factors -- Physiology ; Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083351X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 22 July 2005, Vol.280(29), pp.27244-50
    Description: The Nrf2-Keap1 system coordinately regulates cytoprotective gene expression via the antioxidant responsive element (ARE). The expression of several ARE-regulated genes was found to be up-regulated in endothelial cells by laminar shear stress, suggesting that Nrf2 contributes to the anti-atherosclerosis response via the ARE. To gain further insight into the roles that Nrf2 plays in the development of atherosclerosis, we examined how Nrf2 regulates gene expression in response to anti-atherogenic laminar flow (L-flow) or pro-atherogenic oscillatory flow (O-flow). Exposure of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) to L-flow, but not to O-flow, induced the expression of cytoprotective genes, such as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by 5-fold and heme oxygenase-1 by 8-fold. The critical contribution of Nrf2 to the expression induced by L-flow was ascertained in siRNA-mediated knock-down experiments. Two cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) specific inhibitors attenuated Nrf2 nuclear accumulation in the acute phase of L-flow exposure. A downstream product of COX-2, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), activated the Nrf2 regulatory pathway in HAECs through binding to the cysteines of Keap1. These results demonstrate that 15d-PGJ2 is essential for L-flow to activate Nrf2 and induce anti-atherosclerotic gene expression. Whereas both L-flow and O-flow induced the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 to comparable levels, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Nrf2 binding to the NQO1 ARE was significantly diminished in the case of O-flow compared with that of L-flow. These results suggest that O-flow inhibits Nrf2 activity at the DNA binding step, thereby suppressing athero-protective gene expression and hence predisposing the blood vessels to the formation of atherosclerosis.
    Keywords: DNA-Binding Proteins -- Physiology ; Endothelium, Vascular -- Cytology ; Proteins -- Physiology ; Trans-Activators -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083351X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, 07/03/1998, Vol.273(27), pp.17186-17191
    Description: CrkII adaptor protein becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated upon various types of stimulation. We examined whether tyrosine 221, which has been shown to be phosphorylated by c-Abl, was phosphorylated also by other tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. For this purpose, we developed an antibody that specifically recognizes Tyr super(221)-phosphorylated CrkII, and we demonstrated that CrkII was phosphorylated on Tyr super(221) upon EGF stimulation. When NRK cells were stimulated with EGF, the tyrosine-phosphorylated CrkII was detected at the periphery of the cells, where ruffling is prominent, suggesting that signaling to CrkII may be involved in EGF-dependent cytoskeletal reorganization. The EGF-dependent phosphorylation of CrkII was also detected in a c-Abl-deficient cell line. Moreover, recombinant CrkII protein was phosphorylated in vitro by EGF receptor. These results strongly suggest that EGF receptor directly phosphorylates CrkII. Mutational analysis revealed that the src homology 2 domain was essential for the phosphorylation of CrkII by EGF receptor but not by c-Abl, arguing that these kinases phosphorylate CrkII by different phosphorylation mechanisms. Finally, we found that the CrkII protein phosphorylated upon EGF stimulation did not bind to the phosphotyrosine-containing peptide and that CrkII initiated dissociation from EGF receptor within 3 min even with the sustained tyrosine phosphorylation of EGF receptor. This result implicated phosphorylation of Tyr super(221) in the negative regulation of the src homology 2-mediated binding of CrkII to EGF receptor.
    Keywords: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors ; EGF & EGF Receptor Family/Tgf Alpha /Her/Erbb-2 (Neu)/Erbb-3/Erbb-4/Amphiregulin ; Abl Protein ; Crkii Protein ; Sh2 Domain ; Tyrosine ; Abl Protein ; Crkii Protein ; Sh2 Domain ; Tyrosine;
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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