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  • 1
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2002, Vol. 40(4), p.1420
    Description: Combined antigen and antibody screening (fourth-generation) assays reduce the diagnostic window period between the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and laboratory diagnosis by 4 days, on average, in comparison to antibody-only (third generation) enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The aim of the present study was to assess whether the new VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra (Biomerieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France) showed an improved sensitivity and specificity in comparison to licensed fourth-generation assays. A total of 16 seroconversion panels, 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes, and 257 potentially cross-reactive serum samples were tested with VIDAS DUO HIV Ultra, Genscreen Plus HIV Ag-Ab, Enzygnost HIV Integral, Enzymun-Test HIV Combi, Genscreen HIV 1/2, version 2 (third-generation EIA), and Genetic Systems HIV-1 Ag EIA (p24 antigen assay). VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra showed a comparable sensitivity to the single p24 antigen assay in seroconversion panels and a dilution series of virus lysates. The diagnostic window was reduced with VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra by 3.82 days, on average, in comparison with the fourth- generation assay with the lowest sensitivity of the antigen detection module. HIV-1 infection was detected 5.88 days earlier than with third-generation EIA. The mean time delay between reverse transcription-PCR and VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra was only 2.31 days. The specificity of fourth-generation assays after retesting ranged between 98.1 and 100%. In conclusion, VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra can replace single-antigen screening for laboratory diagnosis and screening of HIV infection in blood donors. There was no evidence for a second diagnostic window due to impaired sensitivity of the antibody detection module of all the fourth- generation EIAs evaluated in the present study. The specificity after initial and/or repeated testing of VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra was equivalent to that of a third-generation assay.
    Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus ; Screening ; Immunoassays ; Antigens ; Antibodies ; Screening ; Immunoassays ; Antigens ; Antibodies ; AIDS: Immunological Aspects ; Viruses ; HIV ; HIV ; HIV;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2003, Vol. 41(1), p.135
    Description: In recent years the diagnostic industry has developed new automated immunoassays for the qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum and plasma samples that are performed on analyzers that permit a high-speed throughput, random access, and primary tube sampling. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of two new automated HBsAg screening assays, IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg, from Diagnostic Products Corporation. The new HBsAg assays were compared to well-established tests (Auszyme Monoclonal (overnight incubation, version B), IMx HBsAg, AxSYM HBsAg, and Prism HBsAg (all from Abbott) and Elecsys HBsAg (Roche Diagnostics)). In the evaluation were included seroconversion panels, sera from the acute and chronic phases of infection, dilution series of various HBsAg standards, HBV subtypes and S gene mutants. To challenge the specificity of the new assays, sera from HBsAg-negative blood donors, pregnant women, and dialysis and hospitalized patients and potentially cross-reactive samples were investigated. IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg, although not as sensitive as the Elecsys HBsAg assay, were equivalent to the AxSYM HBsAg assay and showed a higher sensitivity than the Auszyme Monoclonal B and IMx HBsAg systems for detection of acute infection in seroconversion panels. The specificities (100%) of both IMMULITE assays on unselected blood donors and potentially interfering samples were comparable to those of the alternative assays after repeated testing. In conclusion, the new IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg assays show a good sensitivity for HBsAg detection compared to other well-established tests. The specificity on repeatedly tested samples was equivalent to that of the alternative assays. The rapid turnaround time, primary tube sampling, and on- board dilution make it an interesting assay system for clinical laboratory diagnosis.
    Keywords: Immunological Techniques & Reagents ; Immulite 2000 Hbsag ; Immulite Hbsag ; Hospital Patients;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008, Vol. 46(6), p.2122
    Description: Here we describe for the first time the productive in vitro infection of human retinal pigment epithelial cells by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), resulting in a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) that is characterized by enlarged cells with increased granularity. Depending on the CPE dissemination, high titers of up to 1.6 x 10 super(6) PFU of cell-free and cryostable VZV/ml can be recovered.
    Keywords: Retinal Pigment Epithelium ; Retina ; Replication ; Pigments ; Infection ; Varicella-Zoster Virus ; Replication;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008, Vol. 46(1), p.325
    Description: Here, we describe the association of certain varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genotypes with unique glycoprotein E (gE) gene mutations. Within 45 analyzed VZV wild-type strains of genotypes A and D, five novel gE mutations were discovered. A statistically significant (P 〈 0.0001) association of certain gE mutations with VZV genotype D was found.
    Keywords: Glycoprotein E ; Point Mutation ; Statistical Analysis ; Genotypes ; Varicella-Zoster Virus ; Genetics, Taxonomy & Structure ; Human Genetics;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008, Vol. 46(10), p.3530
    Description: Based on analysis of 16,392 bp encompassing the complete open reading frames (ORFs) 1, 5, 31, 36, 37, 47, 60, 62, 67, and 68 of the genome of genotype M1 varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was found in swab samples originating from eight Tanzanian zoster patients. Moreover, sequence analysis suggests recombination events between different VZV genotypes within ORFs 1, 31, 60, and 67.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1998, Vol. 36(8), p.2235
    Description: In order to reduce the diagnostic window between the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and laboratory diagnosis, new screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) which permit the simultaneous detection of HIV antigen and antibody have been developed. Two fourth-generation assays, HIV DUO (Biomérieux) and HIV Combi (Boehringer Mannheim), for the combined detection of HIV antigen and antibody, were compared with a third-generation assay (HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd Generation Plus enzyme immunoassay [EIA]; Abbott) and a p24 antigen test (HIV-1 Ag monoclonal; Abbott). A total of 17 seroconversion panels, 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes, and 255 potentially cross-reactive serum samples were tested. Ten seroconversions were detected an average of 8.1 days earlier with HIV DUO and 7.5 days earlier with HIV Combi than with the third-generation ELISA. Overall, in the 17 seroconversion panels tested, HIV DUO detected HIV-1 infection an average of 4.8 days and HIV Combi detected infection an average of 4.4 days earlier than HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd Generation Plus EIA. HIV antigen was detected with HIV DUO and HIV Combi in all of the 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, including subtype O. With fourth-generation assays, considerably fewer false-positive results (n = 4 to 6) were obtained, in comparison with the third-generation EIA (n = 18). Fourth-generation assays permit an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than third-generation antibody screening assays through the detection of p24 antigen, which may be present in serum samples from individuals with recent HIV infection prior to seroconversion.
    Keywords: AIDS Serodiagnosis ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay -- Methods ; HIV Antibodies -- Blood ; HIV Core Protein P24 -- Blood ; HIV Infections -- Diagnosis;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2007, Vol. 45(11), p.3540
    Description: In this study, we present a novel genotyping scheme to classify German wild-type varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strains and to differentiate them from the Oka vaccine strain (genotype B). This approach is based on analysis of four loci in open reading frames (ORFs) 51 to 58, encompassing a total length of 1,990 bp. The new genotyping scheme produced identical clusters in phylogenetic analyses compared to full-genome sequences from well-characterized VZV strains. Based on genotype A, D, B, and C reference strains, a dichotomous identification key (DIK) was developed and applied for VZV strains obtained from vesicle fluid and liquor samples originating from 42 patients suffering from varicella or zoster between 2003 and 2006. Sequencing of regions in ORFs 51, 52, 53, 56, 57, and 58 identified 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including two novel ones, SNP 89727 and SNP 92792 in ORF51 and ORF52, respectively. The DIK as well as phylogenetic analysis by Bayesian inference showed that 14 VZV strains belonged to genotype A, and 28 VZV strains were classified as genotype D. Neither Japanese (vaccine)-like B strains nor recombinant-like C strains were found within the samples from Germany. The novel genotyping scheme and the DIK were demonstrated to be practical and simple and allow the highly efficient replication of phylogenetic patterns in VZV initially derived from full-genome DNA sequence analyses. Therefore, this approach may allow us to draw a more comprehensive picture of wild-type VZV strains circulating in Germany and Central Europe by high-throughput procedures in the future.
    Keywords: Herpesvirus 3, Human -- Classification;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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