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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Medicinal Research Reviews, May 2005, Vol.25(3), pp.331-342
    Description: Systemically applied agents to modulate the Fas/FasL system, e.g., by stimulation of Fas on activated leukocytes or tumor cells failed as strategies in immune therapy due to severe toxic effects in the host. Recently, a novel strategy has been developed by using immobilized immune active biologicals in a medical device that may allow immune management without expensive systemic therapy. This review reports on the potential role of Fas/FasL in immune therapy and summarizes current experimental and clinical data with the leukocyte inhibition module (LIM), an immobilized anti‐Fas antibody containing device yet used in extracorporeal blood circulation. This proof of principal may stimulate the development of other devices based on the regulation of Fas/FasL or other targets relevant for immune disorders. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Novel Therapeutic Strategies ; Immune Management ; Apoptosis
    ISSN: 0198-6325
    E-ISSN: 1098-1128
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Medicinal Research Reviews, May 2007, Vol.27(3), pp.401-416
    Description: Despite the fact that neutrophils are essential for the protection from invading pathogens, hyperactive neutrophils may elicit detrimental cerebral damage after severe trauma. The neutrophil interactions with the neurovascular unit entail endothelial dysfunction involving endothelial leakage, formation of edema, coagulation abnormalities, disturbed hemodynamics, tissue infiltration etc. These elements of the “whole body inflammation,” designated systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in conjunction with intracerebral proinflammatory activities, are important triggers of post‐traumatic cerebral damage and mortality according to the “second hit” concept. From the immunologic point of view, the brain is an immune privileged site, known to resist autodestructive inflammatory activity much more efficiently than other organs because of the highly efficient diverse functions of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). However, both the underlying strategy of the BBB to maintain cerebral protecting functions against the post‐traumatic neutrophil‐mediated “second hit” and how activated neutrophils may overcome the BBB are currently unknown. Therefore, this review summarizes the current understanding of the “second hit,” the BBB physiology, and its role in the maintenance of cerebral immune privilege, and discusses recent findings that may explain the pathophysiologic neutrophil–BBB interactions occurring after severe trauma, thus offering novel therapeutic options to protect from post‐traumatic brain damage. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev, 27, No. 3, 401–416, 2007
    Keywords: Blood–Brain Barrier ; Hyperactive Neutrophils ; Second Hit Concept ; Sirs ; Trauma
    ISSN: 0198-6325
    E-ISSN: 1098-1128
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Medicinal Research Reviews, March 2005, Vol.25(2), pp.167-185
    Description: It has been known for a long time that cytomegalovirus (CMV) has evolved mechanisms that allow the escape from the host immune surveillance. In the past, many efforts have been done to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this virus‐mediated immune escape and thus virus persistence. However, it is unknown, whether CMV may also impair immune responses directed against tumor cells. This might have severe consequences on tumor progression and may explain the growing evidence for CMV‐mediated oncomodulation. This review summarizes recent work on CMV‐mediated immune escape mechanisms of tumor cells and oncomodulation and proposes novel aspects that may be important for understanding the CMV‐associated tumor progression. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus Hcmv ; Oncomodulation ; Tumor ; Dna‐Virus ; Apoptosis ; Angiogenesis
    ISSN: 0198-6325
    E-ISSN: 1098-1128
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