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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 07 May 2015, Vol.58(3), pp.389-390
    Description: Natural RNA sponges sequestering cellular noncoding RNA molecules have been found in diverse organisms. In this issue, report another type of RNA sponge, showing that stable intermediates of bacterial tRNA processing control endogenous small RNAs. Natural RNA sponges sequestering cellular noncoding RNA molecules have been found in diverse organisms. In this issue, Lalaouna et al. (2015) report another type of RNA sponge, showing that stable intermediates of bacterial tRNA processing control endogenous small RNAs.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 04 February 2016, Vol.61(3), pp.352-363
    Description: Small RNAs (sRNAs) from conserved noncoding genes are crucial regulators in bacterial signaling pathways but have remained elusive in the Cpx response to inner membrane stress. Here we report that an alternative biogenesis pathway releasing the conserved mRNA 3′ UTR of stress chaperone CpxP as an ∼60-nt sRNA provides the noncoding arm of the Cpx response. This so-called CpxQ sRNA, generated by general mRNA decay through RNase E, acts as an Hfq-dependent repressor of multiple mRNAs encoding extracytoplasmic proteins. Both CpxQ and the Cpx pathway are required for cell survival under conditions of dissipation of membrane potential. Our discovery of CpxQ illustrates how the conversion of a transcribed 3′ UTR into an sRNA doubles the output of a single mRNA to produce two factors with spatially segregated functions during inner membrane stress: a chaperone that targets problematic proteins in the periplasm and a regulatory RNA that dampens their synthesis in the cytosol. Chao and Vogel discover that a small RNA cleaved off the 3′ end of an mRNA provides the elusive regulatory noncoding arm of the bacterial Cpx response to inner membrane stress.
    Keywords: Cpx Pathway ; Cpxp ; Cpxq ; 3′ Utr ; Hfq ; Rnase E ; Noncoding RNA ; Nhab ; Envelope Stress ; Membrane Potential ; Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 10 October 2013, Vol.52(1), pp.4-7
    Description: Three papers in this issue of report on the structure and functional activity of type III CRISPR-Cas effector complexes, revealing novel and conserved features of the ribonucleoprotein particles that underlie prokaryotic genome defense. The new structures suggest that type I and type III complexes follow the same architectural principles and are most likely descendants of a common ancestor, the differences in RNA and protein sequences and structure of individual components notwithstanding.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 2011, Vol.41(3), pp.245-246
    Description: Spot42 is a paradigm for small RNAs that fine-tune carbon metabolism. In this issue of , reveal that this conserved RNA acts through a multioutput feedforward loop to modulate the global dynamics of sugar consumption.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 16 September 2011, Vol.43(6), pp.880-891
    Description: Research on the discovery and characterization of small, regulatory RNAs in bacteria has exploded in recent years. These sRNAs act by base pairing with target mRNAs with which they share limited or extended complementarity, or by modulating protein activity, in some cases by mimicking other nucleic acids. Mechanistic insights into how sRNAs bind mRNAs and proteins, how they compete with each other, and how they interface with ribonucleases are active areas of discovery. Current work also has begun to illuminate how sRNAs modulate expression of distinct regulons and key transcription factors, thus integrating sRNA activity into extensive regulatory networks. In addition, the application of RNA deep sequencing has led to reports of hundreds of additional sRNA candidates in a wide swath of bacterial species. Most importantly, recent studies have served to clarify the abundance of remaining questions about how, when, and why sRNA-mediated regulation is of such importance to bacterial lifestyles.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 07 June 2018, Vol.70(5), pp.785-799
    Description: Bacteria are an exceedingly diverse group of organisms whose molecular exploration is experiencing a renaissance. While the classical view of bacterial gene expression was relatively simple, the emerging view is more complex, encompassing extensive post-transcriptional control involving riboswitches, RNA thermometers, and regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) associated with the RNA-binding proteins CsrA, Hfq, and ProQ, as well as CRISPR/Cas systems that are programmed by RNAs. Moreover, increasing interest in members of the human microbiota and environmental microbial communities has highlighted the importance of understudied bacterial species with largely unknown transcriptome structures and RNA-based control mechanisms. Collectively, this creates a need for global RNA biology approaches that can rapidly and comprehensively analyze the RNA composition of a bacterium of interest. We review such approaches with a focus on RNA-seq as a versatile tool to investigate the different layers of gene expression in which RNA is made, processed, regulated, modified, translated, and turned over. RNA-seq-based approaches are revolutionizing how bacterial RNA biology can be studied. Hör, Gorski, and Vogel review the available global methods that can be used to chart the increasingly diverse number of RNA species and functions in any microbe of interest.
    Keywords: RNA-Seq ; Non-Coding RNA ; Small RNA ; Transcription ; RNA-Binding Protein ; Post-Transcriptional Control ; Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 07 June 2018, Vol.70(5), pp.971-982.e6
    Description: The conserved RNA-binding protein ProQ has emerged as the centerpiece of a previously unknown third large network of post-transcriptional control in enterobacteria. Here, we have used UV crosslinking and RNA sequencing (CLIP-seq) to map hundreds of ProQ binding sites in and . Our analysis of these binding sites, many of which are conserved, suggests that ProQ recognizes its cellular targets through RNA structural motifs found in small RNAs (sRNAs) and at the 3′ end of mRNAs. Using the mRNA as a model for 3′ end targeting, we reveal a function for ProQ in protecting mRNA against exoribonucleolytic activity. Taken together, our results underpin the notion that ProQ governs a post-transcriptional network distinct from those of the well-characterized sRNA-binding proteins, CsrA and Hfq, and suggest a previously unrecognized, sRNA-independent role of ProQ in stabilizing mRNAs. Using CLIP-seq, Holmqvist et al. map transcriptome-wide interactions of the emerging global RNA-binding protein ProQ in and . Their data suggest ProQ to target sRNAs and mRNA 3′ UTRs primarily through a structural code and to stabilize some mRNAs by counteracting 3′ exoribonuclease activity.
    Keywords: Proq ; Clip-Seq ; RNA-Binding Protein ; 3′ Utr ; Post-Transcriptional Control ; Exoribonuclease ; Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Molecular cell, 2012, Vol.47(6), pp.943-953
    Description: Numerous small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria modulate rates of translation initiation and degradation of target mRNAs, which they recognize through base-pairing facilitated by the RNA chaperone Hfq. Recent evidence indicates that the ternary complex of Hfq, sRNA and mRNA guides endoribonuclease RNase E to initiate turnover of both the RNAs. We show that a sRNA not only guides RNase E to a defined site in a target RNA, but also allosterically activates the enzyme by presenting a monophosphate group at the 5′-end of the cognate-pairing “seed.” Moreover, in the absence of the target the 5′-monophosphate makes the sRNA seed region vulnerable to an attack by RNase E against which Hfq confers no protection. These results suggest that the chemical signature and pairing status of the sRNA seed region may help to both ‘proofread’ recognition and activate mRNA cleavage, as part of a dynamic process involving cooperation of RNA, Hfq and RNase E. ; p. 943-953.
    Keywords: Translation (Genetics) ; Messenger Rna ; Bacteria ; Non-Coding Rna ; Ribonucleases
    ISSN: 1097-2765
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 28 September 2012, Vol.47(6), pp.943-953
    Description: Numerous small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria modulate rates of translation initiation and degradation of target mRNAs, which they recognize through base-pairing facilitated by the RNA chaperone Hfq. Recent evidence indicates that the ternary complex of Hfq, sRNA and mRNA guides endoribonuclease RNase E to initiate turnover of both the RNAs. We show that a sRNA not only guides RNase E to a defined site in a target RNA, but also allosterically activates the enzyme by presenting a monophosphate group at the 5′-end of the cognate-pairing “seed.” Moreover, in the absence of the target the 5′-monophosphate makes the sRNA seed region vulnerable to an attack by RNase E against which Hfq confers no protection. These results suggest that the chemical signature and pairing status of the sRNA seed region may help to both ‘proofread’ recognition and activate mRNA cleavage, as part of a dynamic process involving cooperation of RNA, Hfq and RNase E. ► Small RNA-mRNA duplex can recruit single-strand specific endoribonuclease RNase E ► sRNA can guide and allosterically activate RNase E to initiate target mRNA degradation ► The allosteric signal is a monophosphate group on the 5' end of the sRNA ► The 5' monophosphate may contribute to proofreading of sRNA action
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 23 May 2013, Vol.50(4), pp.488-503
    Description: CRISPR interference confers adaptive, sequence-based immunity against viruses and plasmids and is specified by CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that are transcribed and processed from spacer-repeat units. Pre-crRNA processing is essential for CRISPR interference in all systems studied thus far. Here, our studies of crRNA biogenesis and CRISPR interference in naturally competent spp. reveal a unique crRNA maturation pathway in which crRNAs are transcribed from promoters that are embedded within each repeat, yielding crRNA 5′ ends formed by transcription and not by processing. Although crRNA 3′ end formation involves RNase III and -encoded tracrRNA, as in other type II CRISPR systems, this processing is dispensable for interference. The meningococcal pathway is the most streamlined CRISPR/Cas system characterized to date. Endogenous CRISPR spacers limit natural transformation, which is the primary source of genetic variation that contributes to immune evasion, antibiotic resistance, and virulence in the human pathogen .
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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