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  • Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis  (2)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 2001, Vol.480, pp.129-138
    Description: This article gives a short overview on the present state of knowledge of the effects of the intestinal microflora on the health hazards of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs). Results of single cell gel electrophoresis assays with conventional, germ free and human flora associated rats indicate that the presence of intestinal microorganisms strongly enhances the induction of DNA-damage in colon and liver cells by IQ. Furthermore, it was found that supplementation of the feed with Lactobacilli attenuates the induction of colon cancer by this same amine. These recent findings suggest that the intestinal microflora and lactic acid bacilli in dairy products strongly affect the health risks of HAs. Nevertheless, most previous experiments with HAs focused on the involvement of mammalian enzymes in the biotransformation of these compounds and only a few articles are available which concern interactions of bacteria with HAs. Some of these studies suggested that the formation of directly mutagenic hydroxy-metabolites of the amines by fecal bacteria might be an important activation pathway but it turned out that the hydroxy-derivative of IQ is not genotoxic in mammalian cells and does not cause colon cancer in laboratory rodents. There is some evidence that hydrolysis of HA-metabolites by bacterial ß-glucuronidase might play a role in the activation of HAs but experimental data are scarce and no firm conclusions can be drawn at present. The most important detoxification mechanism appears to be the direct binding of the HAs to the cell walls of certain bacterial strains contained in fermented foods. It was shown that these effects do also take place under physiologically relevant conditions. Overall, it seems that intestinal bacteria play a key role in the activation and detoxification of HAs which has been an area of research long ignored. The elucidation of these mechanisms may enable the development of biomarkers for colon cancer risk and nutritional strategies of protection.
    Keywords: Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines ; Genotoxicity ; Carcinogenicity ; Intestinal Bacteria ; Lactic Bacilli ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0027-5107
    E-ISSN: 1873-135X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 2001, Vol.480, pp.285-297
    Description: Epidemiological studies give evidence that cruciferous vegetables (CF) protect humans against cancer, and also results from animal experiments show that they reduce chemically induced tumor formation. These properties have been attributed to alterations in the metabolism of carcinogens by breakdown products of glucosinolates, which are constituents of CF. The present article gives an overview on the present state of knowledge on the impact of CF and their constituents on enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of DNA-reactive carcinogens. The development of in vitro models with metabolically competent cell lines led to the detection of potent enzyme inducers contained in CF such as sulforaphane. Recently, we showed that Brassica juices induce glutathione- S -transferases (GST) and cytochrome P-450 1A2 in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and protect against the genotoxic effects of B(a)P and other carcinogens. Earlier in vivo experiments with rodents indicated that indoles and isothiocyanates, two major groups of glucosinolate breakdown products, attenuate the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrosamines via induction of GST and inhibition of cytochrome-P450 isoenzymes, respectively. Our own investigations showed that CF are also protective towards heterocyclic amines (HAs): Brussels sprouts- and garden cress juices attenuated IQ-induced DNA-damage and preneoplastic lesions in colon and liver of rats. These effects were paralleled by induction of uridine-di-phospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) which is very probably the mechanism of protection against HAs by cruciferous vegetables. There is also evidence that consumption of CF might protect humans against cancer. In matched control intervention studies with these vegetables, it was shown that they induce GST-activities in humans but overall, results were inconclusive. Recently, we carried out crossover intervention studies and found pronounced GST-induction upon consumption of Brussels sprouts and red cabbage, whereas no effects were seen with white cabbage and broccoli. Furthermore, we found that the isoenzyme induced was GST-π which plays an important role in protection against breast, bladder, colon and testicular cancer. No induction of the GST-α isoform could be detected. Urinary mutagenicity experiments gave further evidence that CF affect drug metabolism in humans. Consumption of red cabbage led to changes in the pattern of meat-derived urinary mutagenicity. Overall, CF are among the most promising chemopreventive dietary constituents and further elucidation of their protective mechanisms and the identification of active constituents may contribute to the development of highly protective Brassica varieties.
    Keywords: Cruciferous Vegetables ; Chemoprevention ; Enzymes ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0027-5107
    E-ISSN: 1873-135X
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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