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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Neurosurgery, 2000, Vol.46(4), pp.1009-1012
    Description: OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE:: Infiltration of the brachial plexus with anesthetics can provide relief of upper-extremity pain from invasive cancer. Because the analgesia is short-lived, however, repeated invasive treatments are necessary. We describe the implantation of a catheter reservoir system, in which anesthetic injections through a subcutaneous port resulted in anesthetic infiltration of the brachial plexus. CLINICAL PRESENTATION:: A 47-year-old Hispanic man with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx had undergone surgical resection, radiation treatment, and chemotherapy. Two years later, he had locally recurrent disease involving the brachial plexus, neck, and chest wall. The patient’s pain was minimally responsive to narcotics, which also caused severe nausea and anorexia. TECHNIQUE:: The brachial plexus was localized percutaneously with a needle electrode stimulator. Contrast injection under fluoroscopy confirmed entry into the plexus sheath. With use of the Seldinger technique, two Silastic catheters were placed within the brachial plexus and attached with a “Y” connector to a reservoir. The patient experienced complete relief of upper-extremity pain after a test injection with xylocaine. Thereafter, serial injections of bupivacaine with triamcinolone at 1-week intervals provided complete pain relief. After the treatments were initiated, the patient reported improved sleep and an improvement in his quality of life. CONCLUSION:: A catheter reservoir system for brachial plexus analgesia can provide safe and effective analgesia for upper-extremity pain. This technique negates the need for repeated invasive procedures and avoids the complications of neurolysis.
    Keywords: Drug Delivery Systems ; Arm -- Physiopathology ; Brachial Plexus -- Physiopathology ; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell -- Drug Therapy ; Nervous System Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Palliative Care -- Methods;
    ISSN: 0148-396x
    ISSN: 0148396X
    E-ISSN: 15244040
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  • 2
    In: Neurosurgery, 2002, Vol.51(3), pp.731-736
    Description: OBJECTIVE : Specific guidelines for documenting the complete loss of brain function, for the declaration of brain death, have been established for 3 decades. This study assessed the quality and completeness of brain death notes and the effects of delays between notes on organ procurement. METHODS : A retrospective review of brain death declarations at a major medical center was performed. Fifty-eight cases, with a total of 121 brain death notes, were identified in a 12-month period. Notes were assessed for clinical and confirmatory tests of brain and brainstem function. Adverse physiological events that occurred in the time intervals between notes were also identified. RESULTS : The clinical tests most likely to be documented were tests of pupillary (86%) and gag (78%) reflexes. Corneal reflexes were tested in only 57% of cases, and motor responses were noted in only 66%. Documentation by the neurosurgery department was generally more complete. The delays between brain death declarations were highly variable but did not result in any loss of donor organs because of hemodynamic derangements. CONCLUSION : To meet the needs of organ recipients and donor families and to comply with hospital, legal, and legislative mandates, hospitals may need to increase quality assurance activities with respect to declarations of brain death. Increased physician education should improve awareness of uniform brain death declaration guidelines.
    Keywords: Brain Death -- Diagnosis;
    ISSN: 0148-396X
    E-ISSN: 15244040
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  • 3
    In: Neurosurgery, 2003, Vol.52(2), pp.444-448
    Description: OBJECTIVE: The technique of lateral mass screw and rod or plate fixation is a major advancement in the posterior instrumentation of the cervical spine. This technique provides rigid three-dimensional fixation, restores the dorsal tension band, and provides highly effective stabilization in patients with many types of traumatic injuries. METHODS: Patient 1 was a 32-year-old man who had been in a motor vehicle accident. He presented with right C5 radiculopathy. X-ray findings included 45% anterolisthesis of C4 on C5, bilateral facet disruption, and right unilateral C4–C5 facet fracture and dislocation. The patient was placed in Gardner-Wells tongs, and the fracture was reduced with 25 pounds of traction. Patient 2 was a 56-year-old woman who had been in a motor vehicle accident that resulted in complete quadriplegia. Her initial imaging studies revealed a C3–C4 right unilateral facet fracture with subluxation. She was placed in traction, and her neurological status was reassessed. The findings of her neurological examination revealed improvement: she was found to have Brown-Séquard syndrome. Patient 3 was a 33-year-old man who was involved in a diving accident that resulted in bilaterally jumped facets at C3–C4. The patient was neurologically intact, and attempts at closed reduction were not successful. RESULTS: Patients 1 and 2 underwent anterior cervical discectomy with iliac crest autograft fusion and plating. They were then placed in the prone position, and a dilator tubular retractor system was used to access the facet joint at the level of interest. The facet joints were then denuded and packed with autograft. Lateral mass screws were then placed by means of the Magerl technique, and a rod was used to connect the top-loading screws. Patient 3 underwent posterior surgery that included only removal of the superior facet, intraoperative reduction, and bilateral lateral mass screw and rod placement. CONCLUSION: This technical note describes the successful placement of lateral mass screw and rod constructs with the use of a minimally invasive approach by means of a tubular dilator retractor system. This approach preserves the integrity of the muscles and ligaments that maintain the posterior tension band of the cervical spine.
    Keywords: Bone Screws ; Cervical Vertebrae -- Injuries ; Joint Dislocations -- Surgery ; Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures -- Methods ; Spinal Fractures -- Surgery ; Spinal Fusion -- Methods ; Spondylolisthesis -- Surgery;
    ISSN: 0148-396X
    E-ISSN: 15244040
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  • 4
    In: Neurosurgery, 1998, Vol.43(1), pp.78-83
    Description: OBJECTIVES:: Formulation of surgical management recommendations for localized hypertrophic mononeuropathy has been difficult because of the infrequency of the lesion, lack of precise pathological diagnosis, and uncertainties regarding its cause. The purpose of this retrospective review of the Louisiana State University (LSU) experience with this unusual neuropathy was to evaluate the efficacy of lesion resection and interposition grafting in its management. METHODS:: The charts of 15 patients operated on at LSU during a 15-year period with a pathological diagnosis of localized hypertrophic neuropathy were reviewed. RESULTS:: Hypertrophic lesions were located on major named peripheral nerves of the extremities, distributed equally to the upper and lower extremities. Family history was negative for all patients, and entrapment or trauma, other than previous surgery, were unlikely by symptom location or history. Weakness was the most common presentation. The mean length of symptoms was 76 months. Atrophy, sensory loss, Tinel's sign, focal tenderness, and a mass were found in the majority of patients. Preoperative electrophysiological studies showed chronic denervational changes in all patients. At surgery, if no action potential or one of low amplitude was recorded across the lesion, the lesion was resected and an autologous nerve graft measuring from 3.5 to 8.5 cm in length was interposed. During follow-up periods of 1 or more years, seven of nine patients with localized hypertrophic mononeuropathy treated with graft repairs were either unchanged or improved. CONCLUSION:: Localized hypertrophic mononeuropathy is a progressive process associated with pathological nerve changes that correlate with eventual severe functional loss. If intraoperative histological examination shows onion bulb neuropathy and intraoperative nerve action potentials confirm a nonfunctioning or poorly functioning segment, lesion resection with interposition graft repair provides the possibility of some degree of recovery.
    Keywords: Peripheral Nerves -- Transplantation ; Peripheral Nervous System Diseases -- Surgery;
    ISSN: 0148-396X
    E-ISSN: 15244040
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Neurosurgery, 2015, Vol.76(1), pp.67-80
    Description: textabstractBACKGROUND: Current classification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is suboptimal, and management is based on weak evidence, with little attempt to personalize treatment. A need exists for new precision medicine and stratified management approaches that incorporate emerging technologies. OBJECTIVE: To improve characterization and classification of TBI and to identify best clinical care, using comparative effectiveness research approaches. METHODS: This multicenter, longitudinal, prospective, observational study in 22 countries across Europe and Israel will collect detailed data from 5400 consenting patients, presenting within 24 hours of injury, with a clinical diagnosis of TBI and an indication for computed tomography. Broader registry-level data collection in approximately 20 000 patients will assess generalizability. Cross sectional comprehensive outcome assessments, including quality of life and neuropsychological testing, will be performed at 6 months. Longitudinal assessments will continue up to 24 months post TBI in patient subsets. Advanced neuroimaging and genomic and biomarker data will be used to improve characterization, and analyses will include neuroinformatics approaches to address variations in process and clinical care. Results will be integrated with living systematic reviews in a process of knowledge transfer. The study initiation was from October to December 2014, and the recruitment period was for 18 to 24 months. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI should provide novel multidimensional approaches to TBI characterization and classification, evidence to support treatment recommendations, and benchmarks for quality of care. Data and sample repositories will ensure opportunities for legacy research. DISCUSSION: Comparative effectiveness research provides an alternative to reductionistic clinical trials in restricted patient populations by exploiting differences in biology, care, and outcome to support optimal personalized patient management.
    Keywords: Clinical Study ; Comparative Effectiveness Research ; Protocol ; Traumatic Brain Injury
    ISSN: 0148396x
    ISSN: 0148396X
    E-ISSN: 15244040
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