Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

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  • New Phytologist
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  • 1
    In: New Phytologist, January 2013, Vol.197(1), pp.186-193
    Description: The objective of this study was to investigate the isotopic composition of oxygen bound to phosphate (δ18O‐PO4) in different phosphorus (P) pools in plant leaves. As a model plant we used soybean (Glycine max cv Toliman) grown in the presence of ample P in hydroponic cultures. The leaf blades were extracted with 0.3 M trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and with 10 M nitric acid. These extractions allowed measurement of the TCA‐soluble reactive P (TCA P) that is rapidly cycled within the cell and the total leaf P. The difference between total leaf P and TCA P yielded the structural P which includes organic P compounds not extractable by TCA. P uptake and its translocation and transformation within the soybean plants lead to an 18O enrichment of TCA P (δ18O‐PO4 between 16.9 and 27.5‰) and structural P (δ18O‐PO4 between 42.6 and 68.0 ‰) compared with 12.4‰ in the phosphate in the nutrient solution. δ18O values of phosphate extracted from soybean leaves grown under optimal conditions are greater than the δ18O‐PO4 values of the provided P source. Furthermore, the δ18O‐PO4 of TCA P seems to be controlled by the δ18O of leaf water and the activity of inorganic pyrophosphatase or other pyrophosphatases.
    Keywords: Acid Phosphatase ; Δo Of Leaf Water ; Δo‐ ; Soybean ; Structural P ; Tca‐Soluble Reactive P P
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 2
    In: New Phytologist, July 2018, Vol.219(1), pp.195-205
    Description: Remobilization of zinc (Zn) from shoot to grain contributes significantly to Zn grain concentrations and thereby to food quality. On the other hand, strong accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in grain is detrimental for food quality. Zinc concentrations and isotope ratios were measured in wheat shoots (Triticum aestivum) at different growth stages to elucidate Zn pathways and processes in the shoot during grain filling. Zinc mass significantly decreased while heavy Zn isotopes accumulated in straw during grain filling (Δ66Znfull maturity–flowering = 0.21–0.31‰). Three quarters of the Zn mass in the shoot moved to the grains, which were enriched in light Zn isotopes relative to the straw (Δ66Zngrain–straw −0.21 to −0.31‰). Light Zn isotopes accumulated in phloem sinks while heavy isotopes were retained in phloem sources likely because of apoplastic retention and compartmentalization. Unlike for Zn, an accumulation of heavy Cd isotopes in grains has previously been shown. The opposing isotope fractionation of Zn and Cd might be caused by distinct affinities of Zn and Cd to oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur ligands. Thus, combined Zn and Cd isotope analysis provides a novel tool to study biochemical processes that separate these elements in plants.
    Keywords: Cadmium Cd ; Element Speciation ; Isotope Ratios ; Remobilization ; Wheat ; Zinc Zn
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 3
    In: New Phytologist, October 2006, Vol.172(1), pp.117-126
    Description: •  In grasslands, the loss of structural carbon (C) from nonharvested plant parts is a primary C source for the soil. The amount of input depends not only on the size of structural C pools but also on their loss rates. •  In the field, we examined the effects of elevated atmospheric partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) and nitrogen (N) supply on pool size and rates of structural C loss in stubble and roots of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) by using multiple‐pulse labelling and steady‐state labelling. •  Stubble retained structural C for roughly half the time it was retained in roots. Elevated pCO2 combined with low N supply enlarged the pools of roots and stubble. These conditions also stimulated the rate of structural C loss from stubble and, thus, the amounts available for further transformation. •  The potential of multiple‐pulse labelling as a field technique is highlighted. The stimulation of structural C loss from stubble by elevated pCO2 at low N provides a missing link between increased C assimilation and low yield response and indicates a potentially higher input of structural C into the soil.
    Keywords: Elevated Co ; Perennial Ryegrass ; Managed Grassland ; Pulse Labelling ; Roots ; Steady‐State Labelling ; Structural Carbon Loss ; Stubble
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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