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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • Plant and soil  (16)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2011, Vol.339(1), pp.231-245
    Description: Diversity in phosphorus (P) acquisition strategies was assessed among three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolated from a single field in Switzerland. Medicago truncatula was used as a test plant. It was grown in a compartmented system with root and root-free zones separated by a fine mesh. Dual radioisotope labeling ( 32 P and 33 P) was employed in the root-free zone as follows: 33 P labeling determined hyphal P uptake from different distances from roots over the entire growth period, whereas 32 P labeling investigated hyphal P uptake close to the roots over the 48 hours immediately prior to harvest. Glomus intraradices , Glomus claroideum and Gigaspora margarita were able to take up and deliver P to the plants from maximal distances of 10, 6 and 1 cm from the roots, respectively. Glomus intraradices most rapidly colonized the available substrate and transported significant amounts of P towards the roots, but provided the same growth benefit as compared to Glomus claroideum , whose mycelium was less efficient in soil exploration and in P uptake and delivery to the roots. These differences are probably related to different carbon requirements by these different Glomus species. Gigaspora margarita provided low P benefits to the plants and formed dense mycelium networks close to the roots where P was probably transiently immobilized. Numerical modeling identified possible mechanisms underlying the observed differences in patterns of mycelium growth. High external hyphal production at the root-fungus interface together with rapid hyphal turnover were pointed out as important factors governing hyphal network development by Gigaspora , whereas nonlinearity in apical branching and hyphal anastomoses were key features for G. intraradices and G. claroideum , respectively.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Extraradical mycelium ; Functional diversity ; Hyphal growth model ; Medicago truncatula ; Phosphorus
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2014, Vol.377(1), pp.439-456
    Description: Aims Phosphorus resources have to be managed sustainably and therefore the recycling of P from waste streams is essential. A thermo-chemical recycling process has been developed to produce a P fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA) but its plant availability is unknown. Methods Two SSA products prepared with either Ca[Cl.sub.2] (SSACa) or Mg[Cl.sub.2] (SSAMg) as chemical reactant during the thermal treatment were mixed with three soils previously labeled with [sup.33]P. Reference treatments with water-soluble P added at equal amounts of total P were included. The transfer of P from SSACa and SSAMg to Lolium multiflorum or P pools of sequentially extracted soil-fertilizer incubations were quantified. Results The shoot P uptake from SSAMg was higher than from SSACa. For SSAMg the relative effectiveness compared to a water-soluble P fertilizer was 88 % on an acidic and 71 % on a neutral soil but only 4 % on an alkaline soil. The proportion of P derived from the fertilizer in the plant and in the first two extraction pools of soil-fertilizer incubations were strongly correlated, suggesting that it is sufficient to conduct an incubation study to obtain robust information on plant P availability. Conclusions We conclude that under acidic to neutral conditions SSAMg presents an appropriate alternative to conventional P fertilizers and the dissolution of P from SSAMg seems to be governed by protons and cations in the soil solution. Keywords Sewage sludge ash * [sup.33]P labeling * Recycling fertilizer * Radioisotopes * Italian ryegrass * Sequential extraction
    Keywords: Sewage sludge ash ; P labeling ; Recycling fertilizer ; Radioisotopes ; Italian ryegrass ; Sequential extraction
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2011, Vol.341(1), pp.179-192
    Description: The integration of multipurpose legumes into low-input tropical agricultural systems is needed because they are a nitrogen (N) input through symbiotic fixation. The drought-tolerant cover legume canavalia ( Canavalia brasiliensis ) has been introduced for use either as forage or as a green manure into the crop-livestock system of the Nicaraguan hillsides. To evaluate its impact on the subsequent maize crop, an in-depth study on N dynamics in the soil-plant system was conducted. Microplots were installed in a 6-year old field experiment with maize-canavalia rotation. Direct and indirect 15 N-labelling techniques were used to determine N uptake by maize from canavalia residues and canavalia-fed cows’ manure compared to mineral fertilizer. Litter bags were used to determine the N release from canavalia residues. The incorporation of N from the amendment into different soil N pools (total N, mineral N, microbial biomass) was followed during the maize cropping season. Maize took up an average of 13.3 g N m −2 , within which 1.0 g N m −2 was from canavalia residues and 2.6 g N m −2 was from mineral fertilizer, corresponding to an amendment N recovery of 12% and 32%, respectively. Recoveries in maize would probably be higher at a site with lower soil available N content. Most of the amendment N remained in the soil. Mineral N and microbial N were composed mainly of N derived from the soil. Combined total 15 N recovery in maize and soil at harvest was highest for the canavalia residue treatment with 98% recovery, followed by the mineral fertilizer treatment with 83% recovery. Despite similar initial enrichment of soil microbial and mineral N pools, the indirect labelling technique failed to assess the N fertilizer value of mineral and organic amendments due to a high N mineralization from the soil organic matter.
    Keywords: Canavalia brasiliensis ; N ; Indirect and direct labelling techniques ; Microplot study ; Organic amendments
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2010, Vol.334(1), pp.391-407
    Description: Organic farming largely depends on animal manure as a source of phosphorus (P) and the recycling of animal manure globally is becoming increasingly important. In a pot experiment, using radioactive P labeling techniques, we studied ryegrass uptake of P applied with animal manure and water soluble mineral fertilizer to soils that had been cropped for 22 years according to organic or conventional farming practices. The soils differed in P status and microbial activity. Labeling soil-available P also allowed assessing the uptake from residual P that remained in the soils because of their different fertilization histories. On each soil, recovery of fresh manure P in four harvests of ryegrass shoots was lower than recovery of mineral P. It ranged from 24% to 35% for manure P and from 37% to 43% for mineral P. Recovery of fresh manure P was affected by soil-available P contents. It was lower at a higher available P in a conventional soil. Different levels in microbial activity among soils were of lesser importance for the recovery of fresh manure P in plants. The recovery of residual P ranged from 9% to 15%. Residual P contained in organic cropped soils contributed less to P nutrition of ryegrass than the residual P contained in conventional cropped soils, probably due to their lower residual P contents being composed of stable P forms. The indirect isotope dilution technique is useful in assessing manure P uptake by plants, but attention must be given to added P interactions, i.e., the potential impact of organic amendments on P uptake from non-labeled soil and residual P.
    Keywords: Phosphorus ; Animal manure ; Residual phosphorus ; Isotope techniques ; Phosphorus uptake ; Organic and conventional farming
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2010, Vol.328(1), pp.155-164
    Description: Brachiaria forage grasses are widely used for livestock production in the tropics. Signalgrass ( Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, CIAT 606) is better adapted to low phosphorus (P) soils than ruzigrass ( B. ruziziensis cv. Kennedy, CIAT 654), but the physiological basis of differences in low-P adaptation is unknown. We characterized morphological and physiological responses of signalgrass and ruzigrass to low P supply by growing both grasses for 30 days in nutrient solution with two levels of P supply using the hydroxyapatite pouch system. Ruzigrass produced more biomass at both levels of P supply whilst signalgrass appears to be a slower-growing grass. Both grasses increased biomass allocation to roots and had higher root acid phosphatase and phytase activities at low P supply. At low P supply, ruzigrass showed greater morphological plasticity as its leaf mass density and lateral root fraction increased. For signalgrass, morphological traits that are not responsive to variation in P supply might confer long-term ecological advantages contributing to its superior field persistence: greater shoot tissue mass density (dry matter content) might lower nutrient requirements while maintenance of lateral root growth might be important for nutrient acquisition in patchy soils. Physiological plasticity in nutrient partitioning between root classes was also evident for signalgrass as main roots had higher nutrient concentrations at high P supply. Our results highlight the importance of analyzing morphological and physiological trait profiles and determining the role of phenotypic plasticity to characterize differences in low-P adaptation between Brachiaria genotypes.
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Growth rate ; Lateral roots ; Phosphorus ; Plasticity ; Tissue mass density
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2016, Vol.408(1), pp.15-30
    Description: Background and Aims Soil microbial communities contribute to organic phosphorus cycling in a variety of ways, including secretion of the PhoD alkaline phosphatase. We sampled a long-term grassland fertilization trial in Switzerland characterized by a natural pH gradient. We examined the effects of phosphate depletion and pH on total and active microbial community structures and on the structure and composition of the total and active phoD-harboring community. Methods Archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities were investigated using T-RFLP and phoD-harboring members of these communities were identified by 454-sequencing. Results Phosphate depletion decreased total, resin-extractable and organic phosphorus and changed the structure of all active microbial communities, and of the total archaeal and phoD-harboring communities. Organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus increased with pH, and the structures of all total and active microbial communities except the total fungal community differed between the two pH levels. phoD-harboring members were affiliated to Actinomycetales, Bacilliales, Gloeobacterales, Planctomycetales and Rhizobiales. Conclusions Our results suggest that pH and associated soil factors are important determinants of microbial and phoD-harboring community structures. These associated factors include organic carbon and total nitrogen, and to a lesser degree phosphorus status, and active communities are more responsive than total communities. Key players in organic P mineralization are affiliated to phyla that are known to be important in organic matter decomposition.
    Keywords: 454-sequencing ; Grassland ; Alkaline phosphatase ; DNA ; RNA ; T-RFLP
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2005, Vol.276(1), pp.163-176
    Description: Diversity in phosphorus (P) acquisition strategies was assessed among eight isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belonging to three Glomus species, all obtained from the same field site. Maize ( Zea mays L. cv. Corso) was used as a test plant. Compartmented cultivation containers coupled with 33 P radioisotope labeling of soil P were employed to estimate (1) the distance from the roots that AMF were able to acquire soil P from, (2) the rate of soil colonization, (3) the efficiency of uptake of soil P by AMF, (4) benefits provided to maize in terms of P acquisition and growth. Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices took up P 10 cm from roots, whereas G. claroideum only up to 6 cm from the roots. G. mosseae most rapidly colonized the available soil volume and transported significant amounts of P to maize from a distance, but provided no net P uptake benefit to the plants. On the other hand, both G. intraradices and three out of four G. claroideum isolates significantly improved net P uptake by maize. These effects seem to be related to variability between and to a limited extent also within AMF species, in mycelium development, efficiency of hyphal P uptake and effects on plant P acquisition via the root pathway. In spite of absence of maize growth responses to inoculation with any of the AMF isolates, this study indicates remarkable functional diversity in the underground component of the studied field site.
    Keywords: compartmented containers ; functional diversity ; Glomus ; radioisotope labeling
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2004, Vol.259(1), pp.243-258
    Description: Water and nitrogen availability may limit the growth of the main crop competing with a cover crop in a living mulch system. Some aspects of the dynamics of water (soil water content and deep percolation) and nitrogen (concentration in soil solution and leachate) were studied in maize ( Zea mays L.) sown into a bare soil (BS, conventional cropping) or into a living Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) mulch (LM) during three years. Eight lysimeters (1.0 by 1.0 m square surface area and 1.1 m deep) with ceramic suction cups, TDR probes and a drainage pipe were used each. In LM a 0.3 m wide strip was kept free of grass around the maize row. The living mulch reduced the soil water content between 0.3 and 0.9 m soil depth, which remained lower even after intense rainfall. Deep percolation over the entire maize crop season was at least 40% lower in the LM compared to the BS treatment. In LM the nitrate concentrations in the soil solution and in the leachate (usually 〈10 mg L −1 ) were very low. In BS the nitrate concentration in the leachate reached as much as 70 mg L −1 . Losses of N in LM did not reach 1% of the values observed in BS. Reduced water and N availability in LM contribute to explain the decrease in growth and yield of the maize plants, and are in good agreement with the dense root system developed in this cropping system as compared to BS. The challenge for the development of living mulch systems is to improve the uptake of water and nitrogen by the roots of the main crop in a competitive environment without affecting the capacity of the cover crop to prevent N losses by leaching.
    Keywords: living mulch ; Lam. ; nitrogen dynamics ; water dynamics ; L.
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1 July 2001, Vol.234(1), pp.73-81
    Description: Root exudation of organic acids as Al-chelating compounds and P nutrition have been suggested to play a major role in Al-resistance in higher plants. Effects of Al exposure on maize plant growth, and organic acid root content and root exudation under various levels of P nutrition were examined. Sikuani, a Colombian maize cultivar tolerant to acid soils with high Al saturation, and Corso, a Swiss cultivar, were grown in sterile hydroponic conditions for 21 days. Al-caused inhibition of root growth was lower in Sikuani than in Corso. Al effect on plant growth was decreased with increasing P content in roots. Al content in roots increased with increasing P content and was higher in Sikuani than in Corso. When exposed to Al, the contents in root apices as well as the root exudation of citric and malic acids in Corso and citric, malic and succinic acids in Sikuani increased, and were higher in Sikuani than in Corso. Increased PEP carboxylase (PEPC) activity in root apices after Al exposure partially explained the variations of organic acid content in the roots. These Al-induced changes in PEPC activity, organic acid content and exudation were reduced in plants supplied with higher P concentrations during the 21 days prior to treatment. Increased secretion of organic acids after exposure to Al appeared to be specific to Al and was not totally explained by increased root content in organic acids.
    Keywords: Physical sciences -- Earth sciences -- Geology -- Corn ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany -- Corn ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany -- Corn ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences -- Corn ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Physiology -- Corn ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical elements -- Corn ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences -- Corn ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany -- Corn ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany -- Corn ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences -- Corn
    ISSN: 0032079X
    E-ISSN: 15735036
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2007, Vol.298(1), pp.69-79
    Description: It is generally believed that high soil solution Al 3+ in acidic soils with low base saturation (BS), negatively influences the properties of fine roots. Fine roots from European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) trees growing in highly acidic soils with very low BS and potentially high Al 3+ concentration in the soil solution were analysed and the dependency of fine root properties on soil BS was measured. The fine roots were sampled down to 1 m depth at seven forest sites located on the Swiss Plateau. These sites varied in their BS from 1.4 to 11.4% in the mineral layers. We evaluated relationships between the BS of these mineral layers and fine root properties, such as ratio between bio- and necromass (live/dead ratio), specific root length (SRL), root tip abundance (RTA), root branching abundance (RBA), O 2 -consumption, and the Ca/Al molar ratio in the fine root tissue. The fine root properties were compared not only with the BS of the soil, but also with the Ca/Al molar ratio in the fine root tissues. Significant relations of fine root properties occurred when the soils of the seven sites were grouped into two BS groups (〈5 and 5–10%). The live/dead ratio, the RTA, the RBA, the O 2 -consumption, and Ca/Al molar ratio were lower in the group of BS 〈5% than in the group 5–10%. Decreases in the morphological properties and in the O 2 -consumption were related to decrease in the Ca/Al molar ratio of the fine root tissues. There is evidence that the fine root properties are negatively influenced, nevertheless, fine root systems of mature European beech in their natural ecological environment seem to be able to compensate adverse effects of low BS.
    Keywords: Aluminium toxicity ; Ca/Al molar ratio ; Fagus sylvatica ; Fine root morphology
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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