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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 08 May 2007, Vol.104(19), pp.7821-6
    Description: Adenosine-to-inosine editing in the anticodon of tRNAs is essential for viability. Enzymes mediating tRNA adenosine deamination in bacteria and yeast contain cytidine deaminase-conserved motifs, suggesting an evolutionary link between the two reactions. In trypanosomatids, tRNAs undergo both cytidine-to-uridine and adenosine-to-inosine editing, but the relationship between the two reactions is unclear. Here we show that down-regulation of the Trypanosoma brucei tRNA-editing enzyme by RNAi leads to a reduction in both C-to-U and A-to-I editing of tRNA in vivo. Surprisingly, in vitro, this enzyme can mediate A-to-I editing of tRNA and C-to-U deamination of ssDNA but not both in either substrate. The ability to use both DNA and RNA provides a model for a multispecificity editing enzyme. Notably, the ability of a single enzyme to perform two different deamination reactions also suggests that this enzyme still maintains specificities that would have been found in the ancestor deaminase, providing a first line of evidence for the evolution of editing deaminases.
    Keywords: RNA Editing ; Adenosine Deaminase -- Physiology ; Cytidine Deaminase -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 14 November 2006, Vol.103(46), pp.17568-73
    Description: Current approaches to human cognition often take a strong nativist stance based on Western adult performance, backed up where possible by neonate and infant research and almost never by comparative research across the Hominidae. Recent research suggests considerable cross-cultural differences in cognitive strategies, including relational thinking, a domain where infant research is impossible because of lack of cognitive maturation. Here, we apply the same paradigm across children and adults of different cultures and across all nonhuman great ape genera. We find that both child and adult spatial cognition systematically varies with language and culture but that, nevertheless, there is a clear inherited bias for one spatial strategy in the great apes. It is reasonable to conclude, we argue, that language and culture mask the native tendencies in our species. This cladistic approach suggests that the correct perspective on human cognition is neither nativist uniformitarian nor "blank slate" but recognizes the powerful impact that language and culture can have on our shared primate cognitive biases.
    Keywords: Culture ; Cognition -- Physiology ; Hominidae -- Physiology ; Space Perception -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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