Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Type of Medium
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 03 July 2012, Vol.109(27), pp.10990-5
    Description: Chemorepellants may play multiple roles in physiological and pathological processes. However, few endogenous chemorepellants have been identified, and how they function is unclear. We found that the autocrine signal AprA, which is produced by growing Dictyostelium discoideum cells and inhibits their proliferation, also functions as a chemorepellant. Wild-type cells at the edge of a colony show directed movement outward from the colony, whereas cells lacking AprA do not. Cells show directed movement away from a source of recombinant AprA and dialyzed conditioned media from wild-type cells, but not dialyzed conditioned media from aprA(-) cells. The secreted protein CfaD, the G protein Gα8, and the kinase QkgA are necessary for the chemorepellant activity of AprA as well as its proliferation-inhibiting activity, whereas the putative transcription factor BzpN is dispensable for the chemorepellant activity of AprA but necessary for inhibition of proliferation. Phospholipase C and PI3 kinases 1 and 2, which are necessary for the activity of at least one other chemorepellant in Dictyostelium, are not necessary for recombinant AprA chemorepellant activity. Starved cells are not repelled by recombinant AprA, suggesting that aggregation-phase cells are not sensitive to the chemorepellant effect. Cell tracking indicates that AprA affects the directional bias of cell movement, but not cell velocity or the persistence of cell movement. Together, our data indicate that the endogenous signal AprA acts as an autocrine chemorepellant for Dictyostelium cells.
    Keywords: Chemotaxis -- Physiology ; Dictyostelium -- Metabolism ; Protozoan Proteins -- Metabolism ; Signal Transduction -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 02 May 2017, Vol.114(18), pp.4649-4654
    Description: The capacity for representing and reasoning over sets of possibilities, or modal cognition, supports diverse kinds of high-level judgments: causal reasoning, moral judgment, language comprehension, and more. Prior research on modal cognition asks how humans explicitly and deliberatively reason about what is possible but has not investigated whether or how people have a default, implicit representation of which events are possible. We present three studies that characterize the role of implicit representations of possibility in cognition. Collectively, these studies differentiate explicit reasoning about possibilities from default implicit representations, demonstrate that human adults often default to treating immoral and irrational events as impossible, and provide a case study of high-level cognitive judgments relying on default implicit representations of possibility rather than explicit deliberation.
    Keywords: High-Level Cognition ; Modality ; Morality ; Norms ; Possibility ; Cognition ; Judgment ; Morals
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 15 March 2011, Vol.108(11), pp.4417-22
    Description: Based on our recent work with Haloferax volcanii, ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins (SAMP1 and SAMP2) are known to be covalently attached to proteins in archaea. Here, we investigated the enzymes required for the formation of these Ubl-protein conjugates (SAMPylation) and whether this system is linked to sulfur transfer. Markerless in-frame deletions were generated in H. volcanii target genes. The mutants were examined for: (i) the formation of Ubl protein conjugates, (ii) growth under various conditions, including those requiring the synthesis of the sulfur-containing molybdenum cofactor (MoCo), and (iii) the thiolation of tRNA. With this approach we found that UbaA of the E1/MoeB/ThiF superfamily was required for the formation of both SAMP1- and SAMP2-protein conjugates. In addition, UbaA, SAMP1, and MoaE (a homolog of the large subunit of molybdopterin synthase) were essential for MoCo-dependent dimethyl sulfoxide reductase activity, suggesting that these proteins function in MoCo-biosynthesis. UbaA and SAMP2 were also crucial for optimal growth at high temperature and the thiolation of tRNA. Based on these results, we propose a working model for archaea in which the E1-like UbaA can activate multiple Ubl SAMPs for protein conjugation as well as for sulfur transfer. In sulfur transfer, SAMP1 and SAMP2 appear specific for MoCo biosynthesis and the thiolation of tRNA, respectively. Overall, this study provides a fundamental insight into the diverse cellular functions of the Ubl system.
    Keywords: Archaeal Proteins -- Metabolism ; Haloferax Volcanii -- Metabolism ; Sulfur -- Metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes -- Metabolism ; Ubiquitins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 17 January 2006, Vol.103(3), pp.726-31
    Description: A better understanding of the molecular basis of programmed cell death (PCD) in fungi could provide information that is useful in the design of antifungal drugs that combat life-threatening fungal infections. Harsh environmental stresses, such as acetic acid or hydrogen peroxide, have been shown to induce PCD in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. In this study, we show that dying cells progress from an apoptotic state to a secondary necrotic state and that the rate at which this change occurs is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus. Also, we found that the temporal response is modulated by Ras-cAMP-PKA signals. Mutations that block Ras-cAMP-PKA signaling (ras1Delta, cdc35Delta, tpk1Delta, and tpk2Delta) suppress or delay the apoptotic response, whereas mutations that stimulate signaling (RAS1(val13) and pde2Delta) accelerate the rate of entry of cells into apoptosis. Pharmacological stimulation or inhibition of Ras signaling reinforces these findings. Transient increases in endogenous cAMP occur under conditions that stimulate apoptosis but not growth arrest. Death-specific changes in the abundance of different isoforms of the PKA regulatory subunit, Bcy1p, are also observed. Activation of Ras signals may regulate PCD of C. albicans, either by inhibiting antiapoptotic functions (such as stress responses) or by activating proapoptotic functions.
    Keywords: Apoptosis -- Physiology ; Candida Albicans -- Cytology ; Signal Transduction -- Physiology ; Ras Proteins -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 23 July 1996, Vol.93(15), pp.7594-7599
    Description: E2F is a heterodimeric transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes at the G1/S boundary and is composed of two related but distinct families of proteins, E2F and DP. E2F/DP heterodimers form complexes with the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, the Rb-related proteins p107 and p130, and cyclins/cdks in a cell cycle-dependent fashion in vivo. E2F is encoded by at least five closely related genes, E2F-1 through -5. Here we report studies of DP-2, the second member of the DP family of genes. Our results indicate that (i) DP-2 encodes at least five distinct mRNAs, (ii) a site of alternative splicing occurs within the 5〈sup〉′〈/sup〉 untranslated region of DP-2 mRNA, (iii) at least three DP-2-related proteins (of 55, 48, and 43 kDa) are expressed in vivo, (iv) each of these proteins is phosphorylated, and (v) one DP-2 protein (43 kDa) carries a truncated amino terminus. Our data also strongly suggest that the 55-kDa DP-2-related protein is a novel DP-2 isoform that results from alternative splicing. Thus, we conclude that DP-2 encodes a set of structurally, and perhaps functionally, distinct proteins in vivo.
    Keywords: Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Microphysics -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical reactions -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics -- Polyclonal antibodies
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 10 July 2012, Vol.109(28), pp.11166-71
    Description: The primary hormone-binding surface of the insulin receptor spans one face of the N-terminal β-helix of the α-subunit (the L1 domain) and an α-helix in its C-terminal segment (αCT). Crystallographic analysis of the free ectodomain has defined a contiguous dimer-related motif in which the αCT α-helix packs against L1 β-strands 2 and 3. To relate structure to function, we exploited expanded genetic-code technology to insert photo-activatable probes at key sites in L1 and αCT. The pattern of αCT-mediated photo-cross-linking within the free and bound receptor is in accord with the crystal structure and prior mutagenesis. Surprisingly, L1 photo-probes in β-strands 2 and 3, predicted to be shielded by αCT, efficiently cross-link to insulin. Furthermore, anomalous mutations were identified on neighboring surfaces of αCT and insulin that impair hormone-dependent activation of the intracellular receptor tyrosine kinase (contained within the transmembrane β-subunit) disproportionately to their effects on insulin binding. Taken together, these results suggest that αCT, in addition to its hormone-recognition role, provides a signaling element in the mechanism of receptor activation.
    Keywords: Protein-Tyrosine Kinases -- Chemistry ; Receptor, Insulin -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 20 September 2016, Vol.113(38), pp.10631-6
    Description: DNMT3a is a de novo DNA methyltransferase expressed robustly after T-cell activation that regulates plasticity of CD4(+) T-cell cytokine expression. Here we show that DNMT3a is critical for directing early CD8(+) T-cell effector and memory fate decisions. Whereas effector function of DNMT3a knockout T cells is normal, they develop more memory precursor and fewer terminal effector cells in a T-cell intrinsic manner compared with wild-type animals. Rather than increasing plasticity of differentiated effector CD8(+) T cells, loss of DNMT3a biases differentiation of early effector cells into memory precursor cells. This is attributed in part to ineffective repression of Tcf1 expression in knockout T cells, as DNMT3a localizes to the Tcf7 promoter and catalyzes its de novo methylation in early effector WT CD8(+) T cells. These data identify DNMT3a as a crucial regulator of CD8(+) early effector cell differentiation and effector versus memory fate decisions.
    Keywords: DNA Methylation ; T Cells ; Cell Differentiation ; Gene Regulation ; Memory ; DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases -- Genetics ; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-Alpha -- Genetics ; Immunologic Memory -- Genetics ; T Cell Transcription Factor 1 -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 19 August 2014, Vol.111(33), pp.E3395-404
    Description: Insulin provides a classical model of a globular protein, yet how the hormone changes conformation to engage its receptor has long been enigmatic. Interest has focused on the C-terminal B-chain segment, critical for protective self-assembly in β cells and receptor binding at target tissues. Insight may be obtained from truncated "microreceptors" that reconstitute the primary hormone-binding site (α-subunit domains L1 and αCT). We demonstrate that, on microreceptor binding, this segment undergoes concerted hinge-like rotation at its B20-B23 β-turn, coupling reorientation of Phe(B24) to a 60° rotation of the B25-B28 β-strand away from the hormone core to lie antiparallel to the receptor's L1-β2 sheet. Opening of this hinge enables conserved nonpolar side chains (Ile(A2), Val(A3), Val(B12), Phe(B24), and Phe(B25)) to engage the receptor. Restraining the hinge by nonstandard mutagenesis preserves native folding but blocks receptor binding, whereas its engineered opening maintains activity at the price of protein instability and nonnative aggregation. Our findings rationalize properties of clinical mutations in the insulin family and provide a previously unidentified foundation for designing therapeutic analogs. We envisage that a switch between free and receptor-bound conformations of insulin evolved as a solution to conflicting structural determinants of biosynthesis and function.
    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus ; Metabolism ; Protein Structure ; Receptor Tyrosine Kinase ; Signal Transduction ; Insulin -- Metabolism ; Receptor, Insulin -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 05 May 2009, Vol.106(18), pp.7281-8
    Description: Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons fire in 2 characteristic modes, tonic and phasic, which are thought to modulate distinct aspects of behavior. However, the inability to selectively disrupt these patterns of activity has hampered the precise definition of the function of these modes of signaling. Here, we addressed the role of phasic DA in learning and other DA-dependent behaviors by attenuating DA neuron burst firing and subsequent DA release, without altering tonic neural activity. Disruption of phasic DA was achieved by selective genetic inactivation of NMDA-type, ionotropic glutamate receptors in DA neurons. Disruption of phasic DA neuron activity impaired the acquisition of numerous conditioned behavioral responses, and dramatically attenuated learning about cues that predicted rewarding and aversive events while leaving many other DA-dependent behaviors unaffected.
    Keywords: Learning ; Dopamine -- Physiology ; Mesencephalon -- Physiology ; Neurons -- Physiology ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 02 September 2008, Vol.105(35), pp.13051-6
    Description: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) have a progressive and often fatal course, and their enigmatic etiology has complicated approaches to effective therapies. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common of IIPs and shares with IIPs an increased incidence with age and unexplained scarring in the lung. Short telomeres limit tissue renewal capacity in the lung and germ-line mutations in telomerase components, hTERT and hTR, underlie inheritance in a subset of families with IPF. To examine the hypothesis that short telomeres contribute to disease risk in sporadic IIPs, we recruited patients who have no family history and examined telomere length in leukocytes and in alveolar cells. To screen for mutations, we sequenced hTERT and hTR. We also reviewed the cases for features of a telomere syndrome. IIP patients had shorter leukocyte telomeres than age-matched controls (P 〈 0.0001). In a subset (10%), IIP patients had telomere lengths below the first percentile for their age. Similar to familial cases with mutations, IPF patients had short telomeres in alveolar epithelial cells (P 〈 0.0001). Although telomerase mutations were rare, detected in 1 of 100 patients, we identified a cluster of individuals (3%) with IPF and cryptogenic liver cirrhosis, another feature of a telomere syndrome. Short telomeres are thus a signature in IIPs and likely play a role in their age-related onset. The clustering of cryptogenic liver cirrhosis with IPF suggests that the telomere shortening we identify has consequences and can contribute to what appears clinically as idiopathic progressive organ failure in the lung and the liver.
    Keywords: Pulmonary Fibrosis -- Genetics ; Telomere -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages