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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 August 2014, Vol.490, pp.694-707
    Description: Despite evidence against imminent global phosphate rock depletion, phosphorus (P) scarcity scenarios and the subsequent consequences for global food security continue to be a matter of controversy. We provide a historicizing account to evaluate the degree and relevance of past human experiences with P scarcity. Using more than 80 literature sources, we trace the origin of the P scarcity concept and the first accounts of concerns; we report on three cases of scarcity discourse in the U.S. and revisit the concept of future resources. In addition, we present past evaluations of phosphate rock reserves and lifetime estimates for the world, the U.S., Morocco, and the Western Sahara, as well as past attempts to model phosphorus supply or collect information on phosphate rock. Our results show that current concerns have a long legacy and knowledge base to draw from and that promulgating the notion of depletion is inconsistent with past findings. We find that past depletion concerns were refuted by means of new resource appraisals, indicating that the supply was substantially larger than previously thought. Moreover, recommendations for national P conservation policies and other practices seem to have found little implementation. We demonstrate the merit of historic literacy for social learning and the weakness of the current P sustainability debate because it does not include this past knowledge.
    Keywords: Peak Phosphorus ; Food Security ; Phosphorus Sustainability ; Resources Scarcity ; Environmental History ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, April 15, 2014, Vol.478, p.226(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.069 Byline: Andrea E. Ulrich, Ewald Schnug, Horst-Michael Prasser, Emmanuel Frossard Abstract: This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7milliontU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000tU and 11,000tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. Article History: Received 10 November 2013; Revised 16 January 2014; Accepted 19 January 2014
    Keywords: Phosphate Minerals -- Analysis ; Endowments -- Analysis ; Uranium -- Analysis ; Phosphates -- Analysis ; Phosphoric Acid -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, August 15, 2014, Vol.490, p.694(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.050 Byline: Andrea E. Ulrich, Emmanuel Frossard Abstract: Despite evidence against imminent global phosphate rock depletion, phosphorus (P) scarcity scenarios and the subsequent consequences for global food security continue to be a matter of controversy. We provide a historicizing account to evaluate the degree and relevance of past human experiences with P scarcity. Using more than 80 literature sources, we trace the origin of the P scarcity concept and the first accounts of concerns; we report on three cases of scarcity discourse in the U.S. and revisit the concept of future resources. In addition, we present past evaluations of phosphate rock reserves and lifetime estimates for the world, the U.S., Morocco, and the Western Sahara, as well as past attempts to model phosphorus supply or collect information on phosphate rock. Our results show that current concerns have a long legacy and knowledge base to draw from and that promulgating the notion of depletion is inconsistent with past findings. We find that past depletion concerns were refuted by means of new resource appraisals, indicating that the supply was substantially larger than previously thought. Moreover, recommendations for national P conservation policies and other practices seem to have found little implementation. We demonstrate the merit of historic literacy for social learning and the weakness of the current P sustainability debate because it does not include this past knowledge. Article History: Received 9 January 2014; Revised 14 April 2014; Accepted 14 April 2014 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: Charlotte Poschenrieder
    Keywords: Food Supply -- Analysis ; Phosphate Minerals -- Analysis ; Phosphates -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 April 2014, Vol.478, pp.226-234
    Description: This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers.
    Keywords: Uranium ; Phosphorus ; Energy Security ; Environmental Pollution ; Food Security ; Resources Conservation ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 December 2017, Vol.599-600, pp.1330-1343
    Description: Zinc (Zn) deficiency in human populations depending on cereals as a main source of Zn is a global malnutrition problem. In this field study, we investigated the potential of green manure application to increase soil Zn availability and wheat grain Zn concentrations (biofortification) on a Luvisol with different long-term fertilizer management. We also studied cadmium (Cd), as wheat is a major contributor of this undesired non-essential element to human diets. Clover ( L.), mustard ( L.) or no green manure was grown on field plots which had been managed with farmyard manure or mineral fertilizers for 65 years in Switzerland. After green manure incorporation into the soil, spring wheat ( L.) was grown on all plots. The “diffusive gradients in thin films” (DGT) method and DTPA extraction were used to compare soil Zn and Cd availability among the treatments. In contrast to mustard, clover increased soil mineral nitrogen concentrations and wheat biomass; however, neither increased grain Zn concentrations. DGT-available Zn and Cd increased temporarily after both farmyard manure and mineral nitrogen fertilizer application. Higher DTPA-extractable soil Zn and Cd, lower wheat grain yields, but higher grain Zn concentrations were obtained with farmyard manure compared to mineral fertilizers, independent of the green manure treatment. Farmyard manure added Zn, Cd and organic matter that increased the soil binding capacity for Zn and Cd. The decomposition of clover residues caused higher wheat grain yields, but only marginally lower grain Zn concentrations. The absence of a stronger dilution of grain Zn was probably due to organic acid and nitrogen release from decomposing clover, which facilitated Zn uptake by wheat. The study revealed that both long- and short-term field management with organic matter alters soil Zn and Cd concentrations but that the long-term effects dominate their uptake by wheat, in Zn sufficient soil.
    Keywords: Bioavailability ; Biofortification ; Dgt ; Farmyard Manure ; Legume ; Non-Legume ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 January 2019, Vol.648, pp.779-786
    Description: Applications of mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer can lead to cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils and can increase Cd concentrations in edible crop parts. To determine the fate of freshly applied Cd, a Cd source tracing experiment was conducted in three soil-fertilizer-wheat systems by using a mineral P fertilizer labeled with the radio isotope Cd and by exploiting natural differences in Cd stable isotope compositions (δ Cd). Source tracing with stable isotopes overestimated the proportion of Cd in plants derived from the P fertilizer, because the isotope ratios of the sources were not sufficiently distinct from those of the soils. Despite indistinguishable extractable Cd pools between control and treatments, the addition of P fertilizer resulted in a more negative apparent isotope fractionation between soil and wheat. Overall, the radio isotope approach provided more robust results and revealed that 6.5 to 15% of the Cd in the shoot derived from the fertilizer. From the introduced Cd, a maximum of 2.2% reached the wheat shoots, whilst 97.8% remained in the roots and soils. The low recoveries of the fertilizer derived Cd suggest that continuous P fertilizer application in the past decades can lead to a build-up of a residual Cd pool in soils.
    Keywords: Cadmium ; Mineral P Fertilizer ; Radio Isotopes ; Source Tracing ; Stable Isotopes ; Wheat ; Pot Experiment ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISBN: 4070200262
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 June 2019, Vol.669, pp.608-620
    Description: Wheat is a staple food crop and a major source of both the essential micronutrient zinc (Zn) and the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) for humans. Since Zn and Cd are chemically similar, increasing Zn concentrations in wheat grains (biofortification), while preventing Cd accumulation, is an agronomic challenge. We used two Swiss agricultural long-term field trials, the “Dynamic-Organic-Conventional System Comparison Trial” (DOK) and the “Zurich Organic Fertilization Experiment” (ZOFE), to investigate the impact of long-term organic, mineral and combined fertilizer inputs on total and phytoavailable concentrations of soil Zn and Cd and their accumulation in winter wheat ( L.). “Diffusive gradients in thin films” (DGT) and diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction were used as proxies for plant available soil metals. Compared to unfertilized controls, long-term organic fertilization with composted manure or green waste compost led to higher soil organic carbon, cation exchange capacity and pH, while DGT-available Zn and Cd concentrations were reduced. The DGT method was a strong predictor of shoot and grain Cd, but not Zn concentrations. Shoot and grain Zn concentrations correlated with DTPA-extractable and total soil Zn concentrations in the ZOFE, but not the DOK trial. Long-term compost fertilization led to lower accumulation of Cd in wheat grains, but did not affect grain Zn. Therefore, Zn/Cd ratios in the grains increased. High Zn and Cd inputs with organic fertilizers and high Cd inputs with phosphate fertilizers led to positive Zn and Cd mass balances when taking into account atmospheric deposition and fertilizer inputs. On the other hand, mineral fertilization led to the depletion of soil Zn due to higher yields and thus higher Zn exports than under organic management. The study supports the use of organic fertilizers for reducing Cd concentrations of wheat grains in the long-term, given that the quality of the fertilizers is guaranteed.
    Keywords: Cropping System ; Dgt ; Long-Term Field Trials ; Plant Available Soil Metals ; Zn Biofortification ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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