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  • 1
    In: Scientific Reports, 2015, Vol.5
    Description: The recent identification of IDH mutations in gliomas and several other cancers suggests that this pathway is involved in oncogenesis; however effector functions are complex and yet incompletely understood. To study the regulatory effects of IDH on hypoxia-inducible-factor 1-alpha (HIF1A), a driving force in hypoxia-initiated angiogenesis, we analyzed mRNA expression profiles of 288 glioma patients and show decreased expression of HIF1A targets on a single-gene and pathway level, strong inhibition of upstream regulators such as HIF1A and downstream biological functions such as angio- and vasculogenesis in IDH mutant tumors. Genotype/imaging phenotype correlation analysis with relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) MRI - a robust and non-invasive estimate of tumor angiogenesis - in 73 treatment-naive patients with low-grade and anaplastic gliomas showed that a one-unit increase in rCBV corresponded to a two-third decrease in the odds for an IDH mutation and correctly predicted IDH mutation status in 88% of patients. Together, these findings (1) show that IDH mutation status is associated with a distinct angiogenesis transcriptome signature which is non-invasively predictable with rCBV imaging and (2) highlight the potential future of radiogenomics (i.e. the correlation between cancer imaging and genomic features) towards a more accurate diagnostic workup of brain tumors.
    Keywords: Brain Neoplasms -- Genetics ; Glioma -- Genetics ; Hypoxia -- Genetics ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase -- Genetics ; Mutation -- Genetics ; Neovascularization, Pathologic -- Genetics ; Transcriptome -- Genetics;
    ISSN: Scientific Reports
    E-ISSN: 20452322
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  • 2
    In: Scientific Reports, 2017, Vol.7
    Description: The catabolism of tryptophan to immunosuppressive and neuroactive kynurenines is a key metabolic pathway regulating immune responses and neurotoxicity. The rate-limiting step is controlled by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). IDO is expressed in antigen presenting cells during immune reactions, hepatic TDO regulates blood homeostasis of tryptophan and neuronal TDO influences neurogenesis. While the role of IDO has been described in multiple immunological settings, little is known about TDO's effects on the immune system. TDO-deficiency is neuroprotective in C. elegans and Drosophila by increasing tryptophan and specific kynurenines. Here we have determined the role of TDO in autoimmunity and neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis. We created reporter-TDO mice for in vivo imaging to show that hepatic but not CNS TDO expression is activated during EAE. TDO deficiency did not influence myelin-specific T cells, leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, demyelination and disease activity. TDO-deficiency protected from neuronal loss in the spinal cord but not in the optic nerves. While this protection did not translate to an improved overt clinical outcome, our data suggest that spatially distinct neuroprotection is conserved in mammals and support TDO as a potential target for treatment of diseases associated with neurodegeneration.
    Keywords: Biology;
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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