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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2017, Vol.7(1), pp.2397-2397
    Description: The human growth hormone (hGH) minigene used for transgene stabilization in mice has been recently identified to be locally expressed in the tissues where transgenes are active and associated with phenotypic alterations. Here we extend these findings by analyzing the effect of the hGH minigene in TgC6hp55 transgenic mice which express the human TNFR1 under the control of the mesenchymal cell-specific CollagenVI promoter. These mice displayed a fully penetrant phenotype characterized by growth enhancement accompanied by perturbations in metabolic, skeletal, histological and other physiological parameters. Notably, this phenotype was independent of TNF-TNFR1 signaling since the genetic ablation of either Tnf or Tradd did not rescue the phenotype. Further analyses showed that the hGH minigene was expressed in several tissues, also leading to increased hGH protein levels in the serum. Pharmacological blockade of GH signaling prevented the development of the phenotype. Our results indicate that the unplanned expression of the hGH minigene in CollagenVI expressing mesenchymal cells can lead through local and/or systemic mechanisms to enhanced somatic growth followed by a plethora of primary and/or secondary effects such as hyperphagia, hypermetabolism, disturbed glucose homeostasis, altered hematological parameters, increased bone formation and lipid accumulation in metabolically critical tissues.
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.urn:issn:2045-2322
    Description: Diabetes mellitus is a group of disorders characterized by prolonged high levels of circulating blood glucose. Type 1 diabetes is caused by decreased insulin production in the pancreas whereas type 2 diabetes may develop due to obesity and lack of exercise; it begins with insulin resistance whereby cells fail to respond properly to insulin and it may also progress to decreased insulin levels. The brain is an important target for insulin, and there is great interest in understanding how diabetes affects the brain. In addition to the direct effects of insulin on the brain, diabetes may also impact the brain through modulation of the inflammatory system. Here we investigate how perturbation of circulating insulin levels affects the expression of Hes3, a transcription factor expressed in neural stem and progenitor cells that is involved in tissue regeneration. Our data show that streptozotocin-induced β-cell damage, high fat diet, as well as metformin, a common type 2 diabetes medication, regulate Hes3 levels in the brain. This work suggests that Hes3 is a valuable biomarker helping to monitor the state of endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells in the context of diabetes mellitus.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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