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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2017, Vol.7(1), pp.4462-4462
    Description: It is unknown if LPS (lipopolysaccharides) and markers of immune activation, soluble CD14 (sCD14) and CD163 (sCD163) are associated with the quantity of alcohol consumption. 148 subjects were enrolled (97 excessive drinkers (ED) and 51 controls). Time Line Follow-Back questionnaire was used to quantify the amount of alcohol consumed. Serum LPS, sCD14, and sCD163 were measured. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also isolated. Compared to controls, ED had higher total drinks in the past 30 days, higher levels of LPS, sCD14 and sCD163. The levels of serum LPS, sCD14, and sCD163 were higher among ED with recent alcohol consumption (last drink 〈10 days before enrollment) compared to those without recent drinking. Similar bacterial genome copy numbers were detected in control and ED groups. We found that ethanol primed PBMCs for LPS-induced inflammatory responses. A positive correlation between serum LPS, sCD14, sCD163 and the quantity of alcohol drinking was observed after adjusting for covariates and that abstinence was associated with decline in the levels of LPS, sCD14 and sCd163. We found an increase in the levels of LPS and markers of monocyte activations in ED. Further studies are needed to determine whether these can be used as the biomarkers for excessive alcohol use.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Scientific Reports, 01 November 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.1-17
    Description: Abstract We compared the gut microbial populations in 100 women, from rural Ghana and urban US [50% lean (BMI 〈 25 kg/m2) and 50% obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2)] to examine the ecological co-occurrence network topology of the gut microbiota as well as the relationship of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with obesity. Ghanaians consumed significantly more dietary fiber, had greater microbial alpha-diversity, different beta-diversity, and had a greater concentration of total fecal SCFAs (p-value 〈 0.002). Lean Ghanaians had significantly greater network density, connectivity and stability than either obese Ghanaians, or lean and obese US participants (false discovery rate (FDR) corrected p-value ≤ 0.01). Bacteroides uniformis was significantly more abundant in lean women, irrespective of country (FDR corrected p 〈 0.001), while lean Ghanaians had a significantly greater proportion of Ruminococcus callidus, Prevotella copri, and Escherichia coli, and smaller proportions of Lachnospiraceae, Bacteroides and Parabacteroides. Lean Ghanaians had a significantly greater abundance of predicted microbial genes that catalyzed the production of butyric acid via the fermentation of pyruvate or branched amino-acids, while obese Ghanaians and US women (irrespective of BMI) had a significantly greater abundance of predicted microbial genes that encoded for enzymes associated with the fermentation of amino-acids such as alanine, aspartate, lysine and glutamate. Similar to lean Ghanaian women, mice humanized with stool from the lean Ghanaian participant had a significantly lower abundance of family Lachnospiraceae and genus Bacteroides and Parabacteroides, and were resistant to obesity following 6-weeks of high fat feeding (p-value 〈 0.01). Obesity-resistant mice also showed increased intestinal transcriptional expression of the free fatty acid (Ffa) receptor Ffa2, in spite of similar fecal SCFAs concentrations. We demonstrate that the association between obesity resistance and increased predicted ecological connectivity and stability of the lean Ghanaian microbiota, as well as increased local SCFA receptor level, provides evidence of the importance of robust gut ecologic network in obesity.
    Keywords: Biology
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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