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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 23 August 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.12698
    Description: This clinical retrospective study explored factors associated with distal tibiofibular syndesmosis ossification (TFSO) after ankle fracture fixation. Between August 2012 and January 2015, 172 patients with ankle fractures (121 men) with an average age of 46.6 years (range, 22-71 years) were treated surgically...
    Keywords: Fracture Fixation, Internal ; Ankle Fractures -- Surgery ; Ankle Joint -- Pathology ; Osteogenesis -- Physiology
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 2
    In: Scientific Reports, 2017, Vol.7
    Description: Wider application of single-cell analysis has been limited by the lack of an easy-to-use and low-cost strategy for single-cell isolation that can be directly coupled to single-cell sequencing and single-cell cultivation, especially for small-size microbes. Herein, a facile droplet microfluidic platform was developed to dispense individual microbial cells into conventional standard containers for downstream analysis. Functional parts for cell encapsulation, droplet inspection and sorting, as well as a chip-to-tube capillary interface were integrated on one single chip with simple architecture, and control of the droplet sorting was achieved by a low-cost solenoid microvalve. Using microalgal and yeast cells as models, single-cell isolation success rate of over 90% and single-cell cultivation success rate of 80% were demonstrated. We further showed that the individual cells isolated can be used in high-quality DNA and RNA analyses at both gene-specific and whole-genome levels (i.e. real-time quantitative PCR and genome sequencing). The simplicity and reliability of the method should improve accessibility of single-cell analysis and facilitate its wider application in microbiology researches.
    Keywords: Genomics ; Microbiological Techniques ; Microfluidic Analytical Techniques ; Cell Separation -- Methods ; Single-Cell Analysis -- Methods;
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 3
    In: Scientific Reports, 2017, Vol.7
    Description: Avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2) was the second member of the viral genus Cyclovirus to be discovered. This virus poses a significant potential threat to humans and poultry due to its global dissemination and infectiousness. We used three overlapping polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to map the whole genome of AGV2. We then modelled the evolutionary history of these novel sequence data in the context of related sequences from GenBank. We analysed the viral protein characteristics of the different phylogenetic groups and explored differences in evolutionary trends between Chinese strains and strains from other countries. We obtained 17 avian-sourced AGV2 whole genomes from different regions of China from 2015 to 2016. Phylogenetic analyses of these Chinese AGV2 sequences and related sequences produced four distinct groups (A-D) with significant bootstrap values. We also built phylogenies using predicted viral protein sequences. We found a potential hypervariable region in VP1 at sites 288-314, and we identified the amino acid changes responsible for the distinct VP2 and VP3 groups. Three new motifs in the AGV2 5'-UTR direct repeat (DR) region were discovered and grouped. The novel characteristics and diverse research on the AGV2 genome provide a valuable framework for additional research.
    Keywords: Biology;
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2016, Vol.6(1), pp.21146-21146
    Description: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), with a history of thousands of years of clinical practice, is gaining more and more attention and application worldwide. And TCM-based new drug development, especially for the treatment of complex diseases is promising. However, owing to the TCM’s diverse ingredients and their complex interaction with human body, it is still quite difficult to uncover its molecular mechanism, which greatly hinders the TCM modernization and internationalization. Here we developed the first online Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of TCM (BATMAN-TCM). Its main functions include 1) TCM ingredients’ target prediction; 2) functional analyses of targets including biological pathway, Gene Ontology functional term and disease enrichment analyses; 3) the visualization of ingredient-target-pathway/disease association network and KEGG biological pathway with highlighted targets; 4) comparison analysis of multiple TCMs. Finally, we applied BATMAN-TCM to Qishen Yiqi dripping Pill (QSYQ) and combined with subsequent experimental validation to reveal the functions of renin-angiotensin system responsible for QSYQ’s cardioprotective effects for the first time. BATMAN-TCM will contribute to the understanding of the “multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway” combinational therapeutic mechanism of TCM and provide valuable clues for subsequent experimental validation, accelerating the elucidation of TCM’s molecular mechanism. BATMAN-TCM is available at http://bionet.ncpsb.org/batman-tcm .
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2017, Vol.7(1), pp.2565-2565
    Description: Riparian zone is crucial to the health of streams and their surrounding environment. Evaluation of riparian condition is essential to achieve and maintain good stream health, as well as to sustain ecological functions that riparian areas provide. This manuscript is aimed to evaluate riparian conditions of Songhua River, the fifth longest river in China, using physical structural integrality (PSI) values derived from remote sensing and validated by field measurements. The variation and clusters of PSI values were discriminated by the spatial statistics to quantify variation of riparian condition in each measurement section. Evaluation results derived from 13 measurement sections indicated that over 60% of the riparian zones have been disturbed by human activities. Analysis of land use patterns of riparian zone in the cold and hot spots found that land-use patterns had an important effect on riparian condition. The build-up and farmland areas had been the main human disturbances to the riparian condition, which were increased from 1976 to 2013. The low-low clusters (low PSI values with low neighbors) of PSI values can be implemented to identify the vulnerability of the riparian zone.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2016, Vol.6(1), pp.30252-30252
    Description: To develop a clinic-relevant protocol for systemic up-regulation of NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), male db/db and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were given sulforaphane (SFN, an Nrf2 activator) and its natural source, broccoli sprout extract (BSE) by gavage every other day for 3 months, with four groups: vehicle (0.1 ml/10 g), BSE-low dose (estimated SFN availability at 0.5 mg/kg), BSE-high dose (estimated SFN availability at 1.0 mg/kg) and SFN (0.5 mg/kg). Cardiac function and pathological changes (hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative damage) were assessed by echocardiography and histopathological examination along with Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Both BSE and SFN significantly prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Mechanistically, BSE, like SFN, significantly up-regulated Nrf2 transcriptional activity, evidenced by the increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and its downstream gene expression. This resulted in a significant prevention of cardiac oxidative damage and inflammation. For all these preventive effects, BSE at high dose provided a similar effect as did SFN. These results indicated that BSE at high dose prevents DCM in a manner congruent with SFN treatment. Therefore, it suggests that BSE could potentially be used as a natural and safe treatment against DCM via Nrf2 activation.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Scientific Reports, 01 September 2017, Vol.7(1), pp.1-11
    Description: Abstract Maize (Zea mays, L.) cultivation has expanded greatly from tropical to temperate zones; however, its sensitivity to chilling often results in decreased germination rates, weak seedlings with reduced survival rates, and eventually lower yields. We conducted germination tests on the...
    Keywords: Biology
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2017, Vol.7(1), pp.10840-10840
    Description: Maize (Zea mays, L.) cultivation has expanded greatly from tropical to temperate zones; however, its sensitivity to chilling often results in decreased germination rates, weak seedlings with reduced survival rates, and eventually lower yields. We conducted germination tests on the maize-282-diverse-panel (282 inbred lines) under normal (25 °C) and chilling (8 °C) conditions. Three raw measurements of germination were recorded under each condition: 1) germination rate, 2) days to 50% germination, and 3) germination index. Three relative traits were derived as indicators of cold-tolerance. By using the 2,271,584 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the panel from previous studies, and genome-wide association studies by using FarmCPU R package to identify 17 genetic loci associated with cold tolerance. Seven associated SNPs hit directly on candidate genes; four SNPs were in high linkage disequilibrium with candidate genes within 366 kb. In total, 18 candidate genes were identified, including 10 candidate genes supported by previous QTL studies and five genes supported by previous gene cloning studies in maize, rice, and Arabidopsis. Three new candidate genes revealed by two associated SNPs were supported by both QTL analyses and gene cloning studies. These candidate genes and associated SNPs provide valuable resources for future studies to develop cold-tolerant maize varieties.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2016, Vol.6(1), pp.21845-21845
    Description: The PA-X protein is a fusion protein incorporating the N-terminal 191 amino acids of the PA protein with a short C-terminal sequence encoded by an overlapping ORF (X-ORF) in segment 3 that is accessed by + 1 ribosomal frameshifting and this X-ORF exists in either full length or a truncated form (either 61-or 41-condons). Genetic evolution analysis indicates that all swine influenza viruses (SIVs) possessed full-length PA-X prior to 1985, but since then SIVs with truncated PA-X have gradually increased and become dominant, implying that truncation of this protein may contribute to the adaptation of influenza virus in pigs. To verify this hypothesis, we constructed PA-X extended viruses in the background of a “triple-reassortment” H1N2 SIV with truncated PA-X and evaluated their biological characteristics in vitro and in vivo. Compared with full-length PA-X, SIV with truncated PA-X had increased viral replication in porcine cells and swine respiratory tissues, along with enhanced pathogenicity, replication and transmissibility in pigs. Furthermore, we found that truncation of PA-X improved the inhibition of IFN-I mRNA expression. Hereby, our results imply that truncation of PA-X may contribute to the adaptation of SIV in pigs.
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 17 November 2016, Vol.6, pp.37323
    Description: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is recognized as a key regulator of insulin resistance. In this study, we searched for novel PPARγ agonists in a library of structurally diverse organic compounds and determined that podophyllotoxin exhibits partial agonist activity toward PPARγ. Eight novel podophyllotoxin-like derivatives were synthesized and assayed for toxicity and functional activity toward PPARγ to reduce the possible systemic toxic effects of podophyllotoxin and to maintain partial agonist activity toward PPARγ. Cell-based transactivation assays showed that compounds (E)-3-(hydroxy(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl)-4-(4(trifluoromethyl)styryl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (3a) and (E)-4-(3-acetylstyryl)-3-(hydroxyl (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (3f) exhibited partial agonist activity. An experiment using human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) that were induced to become an insulin-resistant model showed that compounds 3a and 3f improved insulin sensitivity and glucose consumption. In addition, compounds 3a and 3f significantly improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed streptozotocin (HFD-STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day administered orally for 45 days, without significant weight gain. Cell toxicity testing also showed that compounds 3a and 3f exhibited weaker toxicity than pioglitazone. These findings suggested that compounds 3a and 3f improved insulin resistance in vivo and in vitro and that the compounds exhibited potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental -- Drug Therapy ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 -- Drug Therapy ; Hypoglycemic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Podophyllotoxin -- Analogs & Derivatives
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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