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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, Oct 31, 2013, Vol.545, p.291(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.08.072 Byline: Sandra Hildebrandt, Philipp Komissinskiy, Marton Major, Wolfgang Donner, Lambert Alff Abstract: Single-phase c-axis oriented Na.sub.x CoO.sub.2 thin films were grown on (001) SrTiO.sub.3 single-crystal substrates, using pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the epitaxial growth of Na.sub.x CoO.sub.2 thin films in two domains, rotated in-plane by 15 and 45 degrees relative to [100] SrTiO.sub.3. The sodium stoichiometry x of the films can be controlled in a range of 0.38〈 x 〈0.84 by in-situ post-deposition annealing the Na.sub.x CoO.sub.2 films at 720 - 760[degrees]C in oxygen for 10 - 30min. [gamma] - Na.sub.x CoO.sub.2 films are obtained with a full width at half maximum of the (002) Na.sub.x CoO.sub.2 rocking curve below 0.2 degrees. The post-deposition annealing can substitute commonly used chemical deintercalation of Na which is typically associated with a loss in crystallinity. Article History: Received 6 November 2012; Revised 14 August 2013; Accepted 15 August 2013
    Keywords: Epitaxy -- Analysis ; Thin Films -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, Jan 1, 2013, Vol.527, p.200(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2012.08.007 Byline: Ina Uhlmann, Dominik Hawelka, Erwin Hildebrandt, Jens Pradella, Jurgen Rodel Keywords: Sol-gel; ZrO.sub.2; SiO.sub.2; Wear; Hardness; Crystal structure; Micro abrasion; Ball cratering Abstract: Sol-gel based wear resistant coatings are presented as an alternative to existing vapor deposition coatings. The films consist of zirconia which has been doped with 8wt.% silica. Crack-free single as well as multilayer coatings with thicknesses of 80 and 150nm, respectively, could be produced after sintering at 1000[degrees]C. The evolution of layer thickness, optical, chemical and mechanical properties during film annealing was investigated by ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and micro-abrasion. Micro-abrasion has been established as an easy and powerful tool to achieve first comparative abrasion data which could be correlated to hardness, Young's modulus and structure of the films. Above 600[degrees]C a tetragonal, oxide coating with a Young's modulus ranging from 80 to 90GPa, a hardness from 7 to 8GPa and an increased abrasion resistance was obtained. The film density reached 4.64g/cm.sup.3 with the mean refractive index n.sub.550nm lying between 1.88 and 1.93. Article History: Received 19 May 2011; Revised 3 August 2012; Accepted 3 August 2012
    Keywords: Silicon Dioxide -- Analysis ; Silicon Dioxide -- Mechanical Properties ; Thin Films -- Analysis ; Thin Films -- Mechanical Properties ; Hardness (Materials) -- Analysis ; Hardness (Materials) -- Mechanical Properties ; Zirconium Oxide -- Analysis ; Zirconium Oxide -- Mechanical Properties ; Crystal Structure -- Analysis ; Crystal Structure -- Mechanical Properties ; Zirconium -- Analysis ; Zirconium -- Mechanical Properties
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 31 October 2013, Vol.545, pp.291-295
    Description: Single-phase -axis oriented Na CoO thin films were grown on (001) SrTiO single-crystal substrates, using pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the epitaxial growth of Na CoO thin films in two domains, rotated in-plane by 15 and 45 degrees relative to [100] SrTiO . The sodium stoichiometry of the films can be controlled in a range of 0.38 〈 〈 0.84 by post-deposition annealing the Na CoO films at 720 – 760 °C in oxygen for 10 – 30 min. - Na CoO films are obtained with a full width at half maximum of the (002) Na CoO rocking curve below 0.2 degrees. The post-deposition annealing can substitute commonly used chemical deintercalation of Na which is typically associated with a loss in crystallinity.
    Keywords: Naxcoo2 Thin Films ; Epitaxial Relation on Srtio3 ; Control of Sodium Content ; Pulsed Laser Deposition ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    E-ISSN: 1879-2731
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, May 15, 2013, Vol.535, p.171(4)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2012.10.029 Byline: M. Buffiere, E. Gautron, T. Hildebrandt, S. Harel, C. Guillot-Deudon, L. Arzel, N. Naghavi, N. Barreau, J. Kessler Keywords: Solar cell; CIGSe; Buffer layer; Solution processed Zn(S,O,OH) Abstract: Recent results have revealed that the low deposition time issue of chemical bath deposited (CBD) Zn(S,O,OH) buffer layer used in Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 (CIGSe) solar cells could be resolved using H.sub.2O.sub.2 as an additive in the chemical bath solution. Although the use of this additive does not hinder the electrical properties of the resulting Zn(S,O,OH)-buffered CIGSe solar cells, the impact of H.sub.2O.sub.2 on the Zn(S,O,OH) properties remains unclear. The present contribution aims at determining the chemical composition and the microstructure of Zn(S,O,OH) film deposited by CBD using the alternative deposition bath containing the standard zinc sulfate, thiourea, ammonia but also H.sub.2O.sub.2 additive. Both X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses reveal higher sulfur content in alternatively deposited Zn(S,O,OH), since the first step growth of the layer. According to transmission electron microscopy analyses, another consequence of the higher deposition rate achieved when adding H.sub.2O.sub.2 in the bath is the modification of the absorber/buffer interface. This could be explained by the enhancement of the cluster growth mechanism of the layer.
    Keywords: Thin Films
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 01 January 2013, Vol.527, pp.200-204
    Description: Sol–gel based wear resistant coatings are presented as an alternative to existing vapor deposition coatings. The films consist of zirconia which has been doped with 8 wt.% silica. Crack-free single as well as multilayer coatings with thicknesses of 80 and 150 nm, respectively, could be produced after sintering at 1000 °C. The evolution of layer thickness, optical, chemical and mechanical properties during film annealing was investigated by ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and micro-abrasion. Micro-abrasion has been established as an easy and powerful tool to achieve first comparative abrasion data which could be correlated to hardness, Young's modulus and structure of the films. Above 600 °C a tetragonal, oxide coating with a Young's modulus ranging from 80 to 90 GPa, a hardness from 7 to 8 GPa and an increased abrasion resistance was obtained. The film density reached 4.64 g/cm with the mean refractive index n lying between 1.88 and 1.93. ► Sol–gel zirconia–8 wt.% silica coatings with hardness up to 8 GPa achieved ► Layer thickness as compared by ellipsometry and scanning electron microscopy ► Crack-free multilayer coatings produced up to 150 nm
    Keywords: Sol–Gel ; Zro2 ; Sio2 ; Wear ; Hardness ; Crystal Structure ; Micro Abrasion ; Ball Cratering ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    E-ISSN: 1879-2731
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 01 May 2015, Vol.582, pp.295-299
    Description: In this work, we show that in order to optimize the efficiency of Cu(In ,Ga )Se (CIGS) solar cells with Cd-free Zn(S,O)-based buffer layers, the Ga concentration in the CIGS absorber layer towards the hetero-interface has to be adapted. We varied the In and Ga deposition rates in the last stage of our 3-stage co-evaporation process, leading to different compositional ratios = [Ga] / ([Ga] + [In]) between 0.15 and 0.6 in the top 400 nm of the absorber layer. All absorber layers were then completed with both CdS and Zn(S,O) buffer layers by chemical bath deposition. While cells with our standard grading of ≈ 0.4 in the front region result in a best performance of 15% with a CdS buffer, similar efficiencies with a Zn(S,O) buffer layer are only obtained when the Ga content near the hetero-interface is reduced down to ≈ 0.25. The maximum efficiency for the CdS buffer layer coincides with the maximum open circuit voltage ( ) and fill factor (FF). Interestingly, for the Zn(S,O) buffer layer, this is not the case: the increases steadily for higher Ga ratios, while the FF is fairly constant for 0.25 〈 〈 0.5 and decreases drastically for more extreme values. The findings are explained by differences in the conduction band offsets which result from the conduction band shift close to the surface due to Ga content variations. The results illustrate the importance of the absorber layer adaptation for different buffer layers and are an important step on the way to Cd-free buffer layers.
    Keywords: Copper Indium Gallium Selenide ; Buffer Layer ; Zinc Sulfide ; Zinc Oxysulfide ; Composition Gradient ; Interface ; Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    E-ISSN: 1879-2731
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, March 2, 2015, Vol.578, p.180(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2015.01.052 Byline: Colin Georgi, Marko Hapke, Indre Thiel, Alexander Hildebrandt, Thomas Waechtler, Stefan E. Schulz, Heinrich Lang Abstract: A series of cobalt half-sandwich complexes of type [Co(I*.sup.5-C.sub.5H.sub.5)(L)(L')] (1: L, L'=1,5-hexadiene; 2: L=P(OEt).sub.3, L'=H.sub.2CCHSiMe.sub.3; 3: L=L'=P(OEt).sub.3) has been studied regarding their physical properties such as the vapor pressure, decomposition temperature and applicability within the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process, with a focus of the influence of the phosphite ligands. It could be shown that an increasing number of P(OEt).sub.3 ligands increases the vapor pressure and thermal stability of the respective organometallic compound. Complex 3 appeared to be a promising MOCVD precursor with a high vapor pressure and hence was deposited onto Si/SiO.sub.2 (100nm) substrates. The resulting reflective layer is closed, dense and homogeneous, with a slightly granulated surface morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies demonstrated the formation of metallic cobalt, cobalt phosphate, cobalt oxide and cobalt carbide. Article History: Received 1 July 2014; Revised 16 January 2015; Accepted 23 January 2015
    Keywords: Cobalt ; Chemical Vapor Deposition ; Sandwiches
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 02 March 2015, Vol.578, pp.180-184
    Description: A series of cobalt half-sandwich complexes of type [Co( -C H )(L)(L′)] ( : L, L′ = 1,5-hexadiene; : L = P(OEt) , L′ = H C CHSiMe ; : L = L′ = P(OEt) ) has been studied regarding their physical properties such as the vapor pressure, decomposition temperature and applicability within the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process, with a focus of the influence of the phosphite ligands. It could be shown that an increasing number of P(OEt) ligands increases the vapor pressure and thermal stability of the respective organometallic compound. Complex appeared to be a promising MOCVD precursor with a high vapor pressure and hence was deposited onto Si/SiO (100 nm) substrates. The resulting reflective layer is closed, dense and homogeneous, with a slightly granulated surface morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies demonstrated the formation of metallic cobalt, cobalt phosphate, cobalt oxide and cobalt carbide.
    Keywords: Chemical Vapor Deposition ; Cobalt ; Phosphite ; Vapor Pressure ; Thin Films ; Film Formation ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    E-ISSN: 1879-2731
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 30 November 2016, Vol.619, pp.25-32
    Description: This paper explores the influence of hydrogen peroxide H O on the chemical bath deposition of zinc oxisulfide Zn(S,O) and the final photovoltaic performances of the Cu(In,Ga)Se -based (CIGSe) associated device. First, the influence of H O on Zn(S,O) deposition rate and growth mechanism is studied with theoretical considerations and in situ quartz crystal microgravimetry measurements. It shows that hydrogen peroxide concentration masters the deposition rate and induces a “cluster-by-cluster” mechanism. Morphology and composition of Zn(S,O) films have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. In a second part the optimized process is then on co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se substrates and solar cells are completed with a (Zn,Mg)O/ZnO:Al window layers. The use of H O leads to lower efficiency than CdS-based reference, which can be explained by an oxidation of the CIGSe surface.
    Keywords: Thin Films ; Chemical Bath Deposition ; Photovoltaic Devices ; Cadmium-Free Buffer Layer ; Copper Indium Gallium Selenide ; Hydrogen Peroxide ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    E-ISSN: 1879-2731
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 15 May 2013, Vol.535, pp.171-174
    Description: Recent results have revealed that the low deposition time issue of chemical bath deposited (CBD) Zn(S,O,OH) buffer layer used in Cu(In,Ga)Se (CIGSe) solar cells could be resolved using H O as an additive in the chemical bath solution. Although the use of this additive does not hinder the electrical properties of the resulting Zn(S,O,OH)-buffered CIGSe solar cells, the impact of H O on the Zn(S,O,OH) properties remains unclear. The present contribution aims at determining the chemical composition and the microstructure of Zn(S,O,OH) film deposited by CBD using the alternative deposition bath containing the standard zinc sulfate, thiourea, ammonia but also H O additive. Both X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses reveal higher sulfur content in alternatively deposited Zn(S,O,OH), since the first step growth of the layer. According to transmission electron microscopy analyses, another consequence of the higher deposition rate achieved when adding H O in the bath is the modification of the absorber/buffer interface. This could be explained by the enhancement of the cluster growth mechanism of the layer. ► The Zn(S,O,OH) layer composition can vary with the chemical bath process used. ► The alternative process leads to a faster incorporation of sulfur in the layer. ► No ZnS epitaxial layer has been found at absorber/alternative buffer interface. ► The use of H O enhances the cluster-by-cluster growth mechanism.
    Keywords: Solar Cell ; Cigse ; Buffer Layer ; Solution Processed Zn(S,O,Oh) ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    E-ISSN: 1879-2731
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