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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine, September 2016, Vol.240(1), pp.31-7
    Description: Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for normal brain development. The principal dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively, We have previously shown that maternal dietary imbalance between these PUFAs, i.e., rich in LA and poor in ALA, affected brain development and increased anxiety-related behavior in the mouse offspring. Here we further addressed sex difference in anxiety-related behavior in the offspring exposed to maternal LA:ALA imbalance. We fed pregnant mice a LA excess/ALA deficient (LA(ex)/ALA(def)) diet, and raised their offspring on a well-balanced LA:ALA diet from an early lactation period. When the offspring were grown to adulthood, they were subjected to behavioral and biochemical analyses. We found that both male and female offspring exposed to the LA(ex)/ALA(def) diet showed increased anxiety-related behavior compared to those exposed to the control diet, which was differently observed between the sexes. The female offspring also exhibited hyperactivity by maternal intake of the LA(ex)/ALA(def) diet. On the other hand, abnormal depressive behavior was undetected in both sexes. We also found that the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs in the brain was unaffected regardless of maternal diet or offspring's sex. Since the n-6/n-3 ratio is known to influence emotional behavior, it is reasonable to assume that LA:ALA imbalance exposed during brain development is the key for causing enhanced anxiety in adulthood. The present study indicates that maternal dietary imbalance between LA and ALA increases offspring's anxiety-related behavior with a sex-dependent manner.
    Keywords: Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Sex Characteristics ; Anxiety -- Physiopathology ; Linoleic Acid -- Metabolism ; Alpha-Linolenic Acid -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00408727
    E-ISSN: 1349-3329
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine, March 2016, Vol.238(3), pp.205-12
    Description: Denosumab (DMAb), a complete human type monoclonal antibody directed against the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, has gained attention as a novel treatment for osteoporosis. However, its efficacy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We describe a 64-year-old man with severe bone loss and persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) after renal transplantation, whose condition failed to respond to conventional pharmacologic or surgical interventions. He underwent parathyroidectomy with left forearm autograft of crushed tiny parathyroid gland (PTG) particles. However, the autografted PTGs became swollen and caused persistent SHPT in spite of two additional parathyroidectomies of the left forearm. A single subcutaneous administration of DMAb induced hypocalcemia, which was corrected by calcium supplementation and high-dose calcitriol. Eventually, combination therapy with DMAb and calcitriol led to a decline in the patient's elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels, normalization of laboratory markers of bone metabolism, and improvement in bone mineral density in a short period of time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of severe bone loss with persistent SHPT in a renal transplant recipient effectively treated with the combination therapy of DMAb and vitamin D (VD). Although DMAb itself exerts no direct effects on PTGs, the DMAb treatment improved the patient's bone loss. In addition, administration of DMAb allowed for high-dose VD therapy which ultimately controlled SHPT and prevented DMAb-induced hypocalcemia. Therefore, this combination therapy might be a reasonable therapeutic strategy to reverse severe bone loss due to therapy-resistant SHPT in patients with CKD.
    Keywords: Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary ; Kidney Transplantation ; Bone Density Conservation Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Calcitriol -- Therapeutic Use ; Denosumab -- Therapeutic Use ; Osteoporosis -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 00408727
    E-ISSN: 1349-3329
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1990, Vol.162(3), pp.269-278
    Description: NAKAMURA, H., YAMAZAKI, M., CHIBA, Y., TAMURA, N., MOMOTSU, T., ITO, S., SHIBATA, A., KAMOI, K. and YAMAJI, T. 〈i〉Glomerular Filtration Response to Acute〈/i〉 〈i〉Loading with Protein from Different Sources in Healthy Volunteers and Diabetic〈/i〉 〈i〉Patients〈/i〉. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1990, 〈b〉162〈/b〉 (3), 269-278- To evaluate the effects of acute protein loading on the glomerular filtration rate, albumin excretion rate and concentration of plasma amino acids, ten healthy volunteers and six type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria were studied before and after eating 0.7 g/kg body weight of tuna fish, boiled egg white, cheese or tofu (bean curd) on separate days. Furthermore, to study the possible role of glucagon, growth hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide and kallikrein in the responses of glomerular filtration rate to protein, these substances were measured before and after ingestion of tuna fish or egg white in six healthy volunteers. In healthy subjects, glomerular filtration rate increased significantly (〈i〉p〈/i〉〈0.01) from 98.1±4.2ml/min during the baseline period to 129.9±6.6ml/min after ingestion of tuna fish. No significant differences were seen between glomerular filtration rate before and after ingestion of egg white, cheese or bean curd. No significant differences were observed between the baseline albumin excretion rate and that after loading with any of the four kinds of protein. Plasma concentrations of alanine, glycine and arginine (amino acids known to induce glomerular hyperfiltration) increased to a greater degree after ingestion of tuna fish than after administration of the other meals. Diabetic subjects and healthy volunteers had similar responses. Plasma glucagon and growth hormone concentrations increased after ingestion of the tuna fish meal or egg white. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration and urinary kallikrein excretion were unaffected by ingestion of these two kinds of protein. These findings suggest that responses of glomerular filtration rate to acute protein loading may differ depending on the protein ingested, and that these reponses may not be directly induced by glucagon, growth hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide or kallikrein.
    Keywords: Diabetic Nephropathy ; Acute Protein Loading ; Hyperfiltration ; Composition Of Amino Acids
    ISSN: 0040-8727
    E-ISSN: 13493329
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1986, Vol.149(4), pp.351-357
    Description: TAKAHASHI, H., HANANO, M., HAYASHI, S., ARAI, Y., YOSHINO, N., TAKAKUWA, E., TATEWAKI, W., NAGAYAMA, R., TAKIZAWA, S. and SHIBATA, A. 〈i〉Plasma Levels〈/i〉 〈i〉of Protein C and Vitamin K-Dependent Coagulation Factors in Patients on〈/i〉 〈i〉Long-Term Oral Anticoagulant Therapy〈/i〉. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 〈b〉149〈/b〉 (4), 351-357-Plasma levels of protein C (PC) and vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (factors II, VII, IX and X) were measured in 100 specimens from patients on long-term warfarin therapy. Both activities and antigens of these coagulation factors were decreased, depending on the thrombotest values. Factor II activity/ antigen ratio and factor X activity antigen ratio were correlated well with thrombotest values, indicating that the concentration of inactive molecules (PIVKAs) relative to normal proteins increases with increasing intensity of anticoagulation. Although PC antigen (PC: Ag) was also decreased, the ratios between PC: Ag and vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor antigens remained constant, being independent of the intensity of warfarin therapy. These findings indicate that long-term oral anticoagulant therapy results in the suppression of the synthesis of both vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors and PC, but the production of the coagulant and anticoagulant proteins is well-balanced.
    Keywords: Warfarin ; Oral Anticoagulant Therapy ; Protein C ; Vitamin K-Dependent Coagulation Factors ; Thrombotest
    ISSN: 0040-8727
    E-ISSN: 13493329
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