Transplantation, 2003, Vol.76(12), pp.1735-1741
BACKGROUND. : The immunosuppressive drug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) reduces expression of the heterophilic binding elements intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and thereby prevents attachment of alloactivated leukocytes to donor endothelium. The authors speculated that MMF might further diminish receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily which, however, act as homophilic binding elements. Because decrease of homophilic adhesion receptors correlates with tumor dissemination and metastasis, MMF could trigger development or recurrence of neoplastic tumors. METHODS. : The authors analyzed the influence of MMF on homotypic adhesion receptors and its consequence for tumor cell attachment to an endothelial cell monolayer. Neuroblastoma (NB) cells, which self-aggregate by means of the homophilic-binding element neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), were used. Effects of MMF on the 140- and 180-kDa NCAM isoforms were investigated quantitatively by flow cytometry, Western blot, and reverse-transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The relevance of NCAM for tumor cell binding was proven by treating NB with NCAM antisense oligonucleotides. RESULTS. : MMF profoundly increased the number of adherent NB cells, with a maximum effect at 0.1 μM, compared with controls. Decrease of NCAM on the cell surface was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot and RT-PCR demonstrated reduced protein and RNA levels of the 140- and 180-kDa isoforms. Treatment of NB cells with NCAM antisense oligonucleotides showed that reduced NCAM expression leads to enhanced tumor cell adhesion. CONCLUSIONS. : MMF decreases NCAM receptors, which is associated with enhanced tumor cell invasiveness. The authors conclude that an MMF-based immunosuppressive regimen might increase the risk of tumor metastasis if this process is predominantly conveyed by means of homophilic adhesion proteins.
Mycophenolate Mofetil ; Cell Adhesion ; Immunosuppression ; Tumor Cells ; Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 ; Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 ; Leukocytes ; Endothelium ; Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule ; Neuroblastoma Cells ; Clinical ; Man ; Man;
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