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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Tree Physiology, 2011, Vol. 31(2), pp.196-207
    Description: Beech seedlings originating from 11 German provenances with different climatic conditions were grown in pots and cultivated in a greenhouse. The composition of macro- and microelements in roots, axes and leaves was measured after half of the seedlings were subjected to a simulated summer drought. The recently described sensitivity of these provenances to drought was compared with drought-mediated changes in the elemental and ionic composition in organs of the seedlings; in addition, partitioning between roots and shoots was evaluated. A number of element concentrations were decreased in roots due to drought (K 94% of control, Mg 94%, Mn 75% and Zn 85%). However, chloride concentration increased in all organs (115–125%) and was the only element affected in leaves. Some changes in ionome can be related to sensitivity of provenances, but it is difficult to decide whether these changes are a result of, or a reason for, drought tolerance or sensitivity. Observed increases in chloride concentration in all plant parts of drought-treated beech seedlings can be explained by its function in charge balance, in particular since the level of phosphate was reduced. As a result of chloride accumulation, the sum of added charges of anions (and cations) in water extracts of leaf and root material was similar between drought and control plants. Since only the partitioning of Ca and Al (both only in axis) as well as Mn was affected and other elements (together with previously observed effects on C, N, S and P) remained unaffected by drought in all provenances, it can be concluded that direct effects by means of mass flow inhibition in xylem and phloem are unlikely. Secondary effects, for example on the pH of transport sap and the apoplastic space, cannot be excluded from the present study. These effects may affect partitioning between the apoplast and symplast and therefore may be significant for drought sensitivity.
    Keywords: Anions ; Beech ; Cations ; Plant Nutrition ; Water Stress
    ISSN: 0829-318X
    E-ISSN: 1758-4469
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  • 2
    In: Tree Physiology, 2010, Vol. 30(9), pp.1047-1049
    Keywords: Mobilization ; Nitrogen ; Nutrient Cycle ; Nutrient Losses ; Phosphorus ; Storage
    ISSN: 0829-318X
    E-ISSN: 1758-4469
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  • 3
    In: Tree Physiology, 2010, Vol. 30(2), pp.244-256
    Description: Nut yield is highly variable in commercial macadamia production, and to ensure that nitrogen (N) supply does not limit yield, high rates of N fertilizer are generally applied. To elucidate N source and sink relations in mature Macadamia integrifolia Maiden et Betche trees, we traced 15 N label after injection into individual branches and, after soil application, analysed xylem sap and examined the effects of hedging on tree N relations. Xylem sap N and sugar composition and concentration changed in relation to phenology and tree management. Canopy position did not affect xylem sap N concentration but sampling date had a significant effect. Hedging in spring was associated with a rapid and dramatic reduction of the concentration of xylem sap N until the following autumn, but unhedged trees were not available to unequivocally assess the significance of the results. Following 15 N-branch injection in winter, most 15 N label was incorporated into flushing leaves and into bark. After 15 N injection in spring, flushing leaves and flowers were most strongly 15 N-labelled. In late spring, 15 N label was equally incorporated by developing nuts that were retained or later abscised. Soil 15 N application in summer resulted in 15 N-labelling of outer and mid-canopy leaves. In the following spring, 15 N label was translocated to flushing leaves, flowers and developing nuts. The results indicate that outer and mid-canopy leaves are the main N sink for soil-derived N during the vegetative phase and a N source for developing tissues during the reproductive phase. Our study provides evidence that N supply to developing nuts is not a primary cause for nut abscission, supporting the notion that high N fertilizer application rates do not improve nut retention. We propose that current orchard design and hedging practices should be reviewed in context of the role of outer canopy leaves as a source of N for reproductive tissues.
    Keywords: Amino Acids ; Macadamia ; N - Labelling ; Nitrogen Remobilization ; Nitrogen Storage ; Nut Retention ; Xylem Sap
    ISSN: 0829-318X
    E-ISSN: 1758-4469
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Tree physiology, 2010, Vol.30(2), pp.244-256
    Description: Nut yield is highly variable in commercial macadamia production, and to ensure that nitrogen (N) supply does not limit yield, high rates of N fertilizer are generally applied. To elucidate N source and sink relations in mature Macadamia integrifolia Maiden et Betche trees, we traced 15N label after injection into individual branches and, after soil application, analysed xylem sap and examined the effects of hedging on tree N relations. Xylem sap N and sugar composition and concentration changed in relation to phenology and tree management. Canopy position did not affect xylem sap N concentration but sampling date had a significant effect. Hedging in spring was associated with a rapid and dramatic reduction of the concentration of xylem sap N until the following autumn, but unhedged trees were not available to unequivocally assess the significance of the results. Following 15N-branch injection in winter, most 15N label was incorporated into flushing leaves and into bark. After 15N injection in spring, flushing leaves and flowers were most strongly 15N-labelled. In late spring, 15N label was equally incorporated by developing nuts that were retained or later abscised. Soil 15N application in summer resulted in 15N-labelling of outer and mid-canopy leaves. In the following spring, 15N label was translocated to flushing leaves, flowers and developing nuts. The results indicate that outer and mid-canopy leaves are the main N sink for soil-derived N during the vegetative phase and a N source for developing tissues during the reproductive phase. Our study provides evidence that N supply to developing nuts is not a primary cause for nut abscission, supporting the notion that high N fertilizer application rates do not improve nut retention. We propose that current orchard design and hedging practices should be reviewed in context of the role of outer canopy leaves as a source of N for reproductive tissues. ; Includes references ; p. 244-256.
    Keywords: Yields ; Amino Acid Composition ; Nuts ; Translocation (Plant Physiology) ; Fertilizer Application ; Isotope Labeling ; Stable Isotopes ; Nitrogen ; Sugars ; Sap ; Nutrient Reserves ; Xylem ; Canopy ; Orchards ; Chemical Constituents Of Plants ; Pruning ; Macadamia Integrifolia ; Abscission ; Nutrient Uptake ; Nut Trees ; Nutrient Partitioning ; Plant Tissues
    ISSN: 0829-318X
    E-ISSN: 17584469
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 5
    In: Tree Physiology, 2011, Vol. 31(1), pp.3-15
    Description: This review discusses how understanding of functional relationships between parasitic plants and their woody hosts have benefited from a range of approaches to their study. Gross comparisons of nutrient content between infected and uninfected hosts, or parts of hosts, have been widely used to infer basic differences or similarities between hosts and parasites. Coupling of nutrient information with additional evidence of key processes such as transpiration, respiration and photosynthesis has helped elucidate host–parasite relationships and, in some cases, the anatomical nature of their connection and even the physiology of plants in general. For example, detailed analysis of xylem sap from hosts and parasites has increased our understanding of the spatial and temporal movement of solutes within plants. Tracer experiments using natural abundance or enriched application of stable isotopes ( 15 N, 13 C, 18 O) have helped us to understand the extent and form of heterotrophy, including the effect of the parasite on growth and functioning of the host (and its converse) as well as environmental effects on the parasite. Nutritional studies of woody hosts and parasites have provided clues to the distribution of parasitic plants and their roles in ecosystems. This review also provides assessment of several corollaries to the host–parasite association.
    Keywords: Carbon Assimilation ; Ecosystem Function ; Hemiparasite ; Mistletoe ; Nutrient Uptake ; Water Relations
    ISSN: 0829-318X
    E-ISSN: 1758-4469
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  • 6
    In: Tree Physiology, 2013, Vol. 33(5), pp.489-504
    Description: Climate change as projected for Central Europe will lead to prolonged periods of summer drought and enhanced air temperature. Thus, forest management practices are required to take into account how species performance is adapted to cope with these climate changes. Oak trees may play a major role in future forests because of their relative drought-tolerance compared with other species like beech. Therefore, this study investigated the stress responses (i.e., anti-oxidants, free amino acids) in the leaves of three widely distributed oak species in Central Europe (i.e., Quercus robur L., Q. petraea [Matt.] Libel., Q. pubescens Willd.) to drought, air warming and the combination of drought plus air warming under controlled conditions after periods of spring drought, a short rewetting and summer drought. We quantified foliar levels of thiols, ascorbate, and free amino compounds in Q robur , Q. petraea and Q. pubescens . Our study showed that oak saplings had increased levels of γ-glutamylcysteine and total glutathione and proline with drought and air warming. Foliar ascorbate, glutathione disulfide and dehydroascorbic acid levels were not affected. The comparison of stress responses to drought and/or air warming between the three species showed higher foliar thiol levels in Q. robur and Q. pubescens compared with Q. petraea . For total and reduced ascorbic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid, the highest levels were found in Q. robur . In conclusion, our study showed that foliar anti-oxidant and free amino acid levels were significantly affected by drought plus air warming; however, this effect was species-dependent with the drought-tolerant species of Q. pubescens having the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity among three tested oak species. Furthermore, stress responses as shown by increased levels of foliar anti-oxidants and free amino acids differ between calcareous and acidic soil indicating that the capacities of anti-oxidative defense and osmotic stress adjustment developed better on calcareous compared with acidic soil; however, this effect was metabolite- as well as species-specific.
    Keywords: Anti - Oxidants ; Climate Chamber ; Dryness ; Enhanced Air Temperature ; Free Amino Acids ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Quercus Robur〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Quercus Petraea〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Quercus Pubescens〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉
    ISSN: 0829-318X
    E-ISSN: 1758-4469
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  • 7
    In: Tree Physiology, 2014, Vol. 34(1), pp.49-60
    Description: Plant species use different strategies for maximizing growth and fitness under changing environmental conditions. At the ecosystem level, seedlings in particular compete with other vegetation components for light and nitrogen (N), which often constitute growth-limiting resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of light availability on the competition for N between seedlings of European beech and sycamore maple and analysed the consequences of this competition for the composition of N metabolites in fine roots. Our results show different strategies in N acquisition between beech and sycamore maple. Both species responded to reduced light availability by adapting their morphological and physiological traits with a decrease in biomass and net assimilation rate and an increase in specific leaf area and leaf area ratio. For beech seedlings, competition with sycamore maple led to a reduction in organic N uptake capacity. Reduced light availability led to a decrease in ammonium, but an increase in glutamine-N uptake capacity in sycamore maple. However, this response was stronger compared with that of beech and was accompanied by reduced growth. Thus, our results suggest better adaptation of N acquisition to reduced light availability in beech compared with sycamore maple seedlings.
    Keywords: Amino Acids ; Ammonium ; Nitrate ; Nitrogen Nutrition ; Nitrogen Uptake Capacity ; Soluble Protein
    ISSN: 0829-318X
    E-ISSN: 1758-4469
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  • 8
    In: Tree Physiology, 2018, Vol. 38(11), pp.1752-1760
    Description: Aluminium (Al) accumulation is a common trait expressed in at least 60 plant families and particularly prevalent in tropical woody plants. However, the functional significance and genetic or physiological controls on Al accumulation are currently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that differential expression of Al accumulation among wild populations of the Al-accumulating tropical shrub Melastoma malabathricum L. is associated with habitat-related variation in total and exchangeable soil Al concentrations. Mature leaves and seeds were sampled from 20 populations of M. malabathricum growing in six habitats across Peninsular Malaysia, and soil was collected from each site. The seeds were grown in hydroponic solutions comprising 50% Hoagland’s solution amended with Al in the form of 1.0 mM AlCl 3 to test the hypothesis that differential expression of foliar Al accumulation is an inherited trait. Foliar Al concentrations varied significantly among populations, but were not consistently different among plants growing in different habitats and showed no relationship to total or exchangeable Al concentrations in soils collected at the 20 sites. Mean foliar Al concentration in wild plants was positively correlated with foliar calcium (Ca) concentrations, and with total soil nitrogen (N), Ca and magnesium (Mg) concentrations, across the 20 populations, and Al addition increased foliar concentrations of phosphorus, Ca, Mg and potassium in seedlings. The differential expression of Al accumulation in M. malabathricum populations is uncoupled to local variation in soil Al concentrations, but may be sensitive to local soil-related variation in the availability of other macro-nutrients, in particular N, Ca and Mg. Further research on the factors controlling Al uptake should focus on the plasticity of this trait within populations of Al accumulators and interactions with micro-habitat variation in the availability of the macronutrient cations.
    Keywords: Aluminium Accumulation ; Functional Trait ; 〈Kwd〉 〈Italic Toggle="Yes"〉Melastoma Malabathricum〈/Italic〉 〈/Kwd〉 ; Peninsular Malaysia ; Populations
    E-ISSN: 1758-4469
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  • 9
    In: Tree Physiology, 2013, Vol. 33(3), pp.297-310
    Description: Interspecific relationships among species mean leaf traits, performance and species resource/climate distributions help provide the foundation for a predictive, functionally based plant ecology. Intraspecific responses of leaf traits and performance to resource gradients and how these vary among species may be equally important but have received less attention. Here, we examine relationships between proxies of soil resource availability, leaf traits and growth (height at 25 years, SI 25 ) for winter deciduous Larix decidua Mill. and evergreen Pinus resinosa Ait. trees distributed over soil resource gradients in the Great Lakes region of North America. We predicted that (i) leaf trait responses to soil resources within species will be similar to reported distributions of mean leaf traits over soil resource gradients among species; (ii) soil resource-related variation in leaf traits can help explain SI 25 ; and (iii) SI 25 will be greater for Larix than Pinus at higher soil resources and greater for Pinus than Larix at lower soil resources and this pattern will be associated with species differences in leaf trait responses to soil resources. Among the measured leaf traits (live N, Mg, Ca, K, P, and Mn, litter N, N resorption, carbon isotope discrimination, specific leaf area, lifespan), soil resources only impacted live and litter N for both species and K for Pinus . In turn, only the leaf traits responsive to soil resources affected SI 25 in the expected manner. Larix had greater SI 25 than Pinus across soil resource gradients and both species had similar growth and leaf trait sensitivities to resources. In summary: (i) several leaf traits reported to be associated with performance and edaphic distributions across species were, within species, unresponsive to nitrogen and water availability and unrelated to growth; (ii) leaf N showed high plasticity to soil resources and this plasticity was functionally relevant to growth over its entire range of response; (iii) large species-level differences in leaf traits between Larix and Pinus did not translate into different leaf trait and growth responses to soil resources.
    Keywords: Growth ; Growth Rank Reversals ; Intraspecific ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Larix Decidua〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; Leaf Nitrogen ; Leaf Traits ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Pinus Resinosa〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; Plasticity ; Soil Resource Availability
    ISSN: 0829-318X
    E-ISSN: 1758-4469
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  • 10
    In: Tree Physiology, 2012, Vol. 32(2), pp.135-145
    Description: Flooding is assumed to cause an energy crisis in plants because—due to a lack of O 2 —mitochondrial respiration is replaced by alcoholic fermentation which yields considerably less energy equivalents. In the present study, the effect of flooding on the carbon metabolism of flooding-tolerant pedunculate oak ( Quercus robur L.) and flooding-sensitive European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings was characterized. Whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations dropped in roots of F. sylvatica , they were constant in Q. robur during flooding. At the same time, root alcohol dehydrogenase activities were decreased in beech but not in oak, suggesting substrate limitation of alcoholic fermentation in beech roots. Surprisingly, leaf and phloem sap sugar concentrations increased in both species but to a much higher degree in beech. This finding suggests that the phloem unloading process in flooding-sensitive beech was strongly impaired. It is assumed that root-derived ethanol is transported to the leaves via the transpiration stream. This mechanism is considered an adaptation to flooding because it helps avoid the accumulation of toxic ethanol in the roots and supports the whole plantʼs carbon metabolism by channelling ethanol into the oxidative metabolism of the leaves. A labelling experiment demonstrated that in the leaves of flooded trees, ethanol metabolism does not differ between flooded beech and oak, indicating that processes in the roots are crucial for the treesʼ flooding tolerance.
    Keywords: Beech ; C Metabolism ; Ethanol ; Flooding ; Flood Tolerance ; Oak ; Total Soluble Sugars
    ISSN: 0829-318X
    E-ISSN: 1758-4469
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