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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2014, Vol.28(2), pp.399-411
    Description: Byline: Dorte Randewig (1), Domenica Hamisch (2), Monika Eiblmeier (1), Christian Boedecker (2), Jurgen Kreuzwieser (1), Ralf R. Mendel (2), Robert Hansch (2), Cornelia Herschbach (1), Heinz Rennenberg (1,3) Keywords: APR, Adenosine 5 -phosphosulfate reductase; Gas exchange; GSH, Glutathione; Sulfate; SO, Sulfite oxidase; Sulfur dioxide Abstract: Key Message The critical level for SO .sub.2 susceptibility of Populus x canescens is approximately 1.2 uL L .sup.-1 SO .sub.2 . Both sulfite oxidation and sulfite reduction and assimilation contribute to SO .sub.2 detoxification. Abstract In the present study, uptake, susceptibility and metabolism of SO.sub.2 were analyzed in the deciduous tree species poplar (Populus x canescens). A particular focus was on the significance of sulfite oxidase (SO) for sulfite detoxification, as SO has been characterized as a safety valve for SO.sub.2 detoxification in herbaceous plants. For this purpose, poplar plants were exposed to different levels of SO.sub.2 (0.65, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 uL L.sup.-1) and were characterized by visible injuries and at the physiological level. Gas exchange parameters (stomatal conductance for water vapor, CO.sub.2 assimilation, SO.sub.2 uptake) of the shoots were compared with metabolite levels (sulfate, thiols) and enzyme activities [SO, adenosine 5 -phosphosulfate reductase (APR)] in expanding leaves (80--90 % expanded). The critical dosage of SO.sub.2 that confers injury to the leaves was 1.2 uL L.sup.-1 SO.sub.2. The observed increase in sulfur containing compounds (sulfate and thiols) in the expanding leaves strongly correlated with total SO.sub.2 uptake of the plant shoot, whereas SO.sub.2 uptake rate was strongly correlated with stomatal conductance for water vapor. Furthermore, exposure to high concentration of SO.sub.2 revealed channeling of sulfite through assimilatory sulfate reduction that contributes in addition to SO-mediated sulfite oxidation to sulfite detoxification in expanding leaves of this woody plant species. Author Affiliation: (1) Fakultat fur Umwelt und Naturliche Ressourcen (UNR), Institut fur Forstwissenschaften, Professur fur Baumphysiologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg, Georges-Kohler Allee 53/54, 79085, Freiburg, Germany (2) Institut fur Pflanzenbiologie, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Humboldtstrasse 1, 38106, Braunschweig, Germany (3) King Saud University, PO Box 2454, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia Article History: Registration Date: 08/11/2013 Received Date: 23/10/2013 Accepted Date: 08/11/2013 Online Date: 27/12/2013 Article note: Communicated by W. Bilger. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00468-013-0958-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: APR, Adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase ; Gas exchange ; GSH, Glutathione ; Sulfate ; SO, Sulfite oxidase ; Sulfur dioxide
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2017, Vol.31(2), pp.623-644
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-016-1496-0 Byline: Jorg Kruse (1), Mark A. Adams (2), Georgi Kadinov (1), Leila Arab (1), Jurgen Kreuzwieser (1), Saleh Alfarraj (3), Waltraud Schulze (4), Heinz Rennenberg (1,3) Keywords: Arrhenius equation; Acclimation; Temperature; V .sub.cmax; Rubisco activase; Respiration Abstract: Key message Instantaneous temperature responses of leaf respiration and photosynthesis can be described by the same equation, to help understand acclimation of primary metabolism to altered growth temperature and water supply. Abstract We used a three-parameter, modified Arrhenius equation, originally developed for leaf respiration, to characterize A/T curves of Date Palm and acclimation to elevated growth temperature and water deprivation: A.sub.T = A.sub.ref e.sup.[ E.sub.o/ (Ref.sub.A ) ( T - T.sub.ref/ T T.sub.ref ) + [delta].sub.A ( T - T.sub.ref/ T T.sub.ref ).sup.2 ] 〈![CDATA[ ]]〉 A T = A ref x e E o ( Ref A ) a x T - T ref T x T ref + [delta] A x T - T ref T x T ref 2 〈![CDATA[ ]]〉 where A .sub.ref is the net CO.sub.2-assimilation (A) at fixed reference temperature (T .sub.ref), E .sub.o(Ref.sub.A) is the activation energy of A close to T .sub.ref, and [delta] .sub.A describes the change of E .sub.o with increasing incubation temperature (T). Similar to respiration parameters, E .sub.o(Ref.sub.A) and [delta] .sub.A-values were strongly correlated. Symmetry of A/T curves, i.e., constancy of dE .sub.o/dT between 20--45 [degrees]C incubation temperatures, suggests close coordination of component processes underlying A. This symmetry remained at high growth temperature, despite large reductions in biochemical capacity for P .sub.i regeneration relative to carboxylation capacity (i.e., increased abundance of RubisCO activase). Acclimation to higher temperature caused pronounced reductions in physiological capacity of respiration (R .sub.Cap) (type II acclimation, determined via gas exchange measurements). Reductions in R .sub.Cap were not a result of limitations in substrate availability (i.e., pyruvate), but were related to lower abundances of mitochondrial enzymes in well-watered plants (i.e., pyruvate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase). Water shortage led to sucrose accumulation, with modest reductions in mitochondrial enzyme pools. R .sub.Cap remained low when growth temperature was increased. Author Affiliation: (1) Chair of Tree Physiology, Institute of Forest Sciences, Georges-Kohler-Allee 53/54, 79110, Freiburg, Germany (2) Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia (3) College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia (4) Department of Plant Systems Biology, University of Hohenheim, 70593, Stuttgart, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 09/11/2016 Received Date: 03/10/2016 Accepted Date: 08/11/2016 Online Date: 09/01/2017 Article note: Communicated by U. Luettge. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00468-016-1496-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Arrhenius equation ; Acclimation ; Temperature ; V cmax ; Rubisco activase ; Respiration
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2018, Vol.32(1), pp.337-348
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-017-1557-z Byline: Ruth-Kristina Magh (1), Michel Grun (1), Viola Elisa Knothe (1), Tobias Stubenazy (1), Javier Tejedor (3), Michael Dannenmann (3), Heinz Rennenberg (1,2) Keywords: Climate change; Water supply; Nitrogen supply; Carbon isotope discrimination; Nitrogen use efficiency; Mixed forest Abstract: Key message Water relations in the leaves of beech trees on sandstone-derived soil are supported by the presence of white fir neighbors. Abstract Climate extremes such as heat waves and prolonged periods of drought not only affect water relations of trees, but can also accelerate nitrogen (N) limitation under low soil N. To counteract these effects of climate change, it has been suggested to replace forest monocultures with mixed forest stands. In the present study, we tested, if water relations and N nutrition of shallow rooting and, hence, drought sensitive beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) could benefit from deep rooting and, hence, less drought sensitive silver-fir (Abies alba MILL.). Adult trees were analyzed on two forest sites stocking on different parent bedrock at different elevations. The sites differed in precipitation and total N contents in the soil, but revealed a similar soil water holding capacity. Surprisingly, analysis of root and leaf/needle bulk material revealed higher N contents in beech and fir tissues from the low compared to the high soil N site. Significant effects of silver-fir neighbors on N nutrition of beech were not observed. [delt[a].sup.13]C signatures of leaf/needle and root material served as indicators for water supply. In the leaves, but not in the roots of beech trees at the site with lower precipitation, [delt[a].sup.13]C signatures indicate improved water supply of beech in the presence of sufficient fir neighbors. Irrespective of this observation, water supply for both tree species appeared to be sufficient at both field sites despite low spring and early summer precipitation. Author Affiliation: (1) grid.5963.9, Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Tree Physiology, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 53/54, 79110, Freiburg, Germany (2) 0000 0004 1773 5396, grid.56302.32, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia (3) 0000 0001 0075 5874, grid.7892.4, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kreuzeckbahnstrasse 19, 82467, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 25/04/2017 Received Date: 04/11/2016 Accepted Date: 24/04/2017 Online Date: 05/05/2017 Article note: Communicated by J. Major. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00468-017-1557-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Climate change ; Water supply ; Nitrogen supply ; Carbon isotope discrimination ; Nitrogen use efficiency ; Mixed forest
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2007, Vol.21(1), pp.79-92
    Description: During the growing season of the exceptionally dry and warm year 2003, we assessed seasonal changes in nitrogen, carbon and water balance related parameters of mature naturally grown European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) along a North–South transect in Europe that included a beech forest stand in central Germany, two in southern Germany and one in southern France. Indicators for N balance assessed at all four sites were foliar N contents and total soluble non-protein nitrogen compounds (TSNN) in xylem sap, leaves and phloem exudates; C and water balance related parameters determined were foliar C contents, δ 13 C and δ 18 O signatures. Tissue sampling was performed in May, July and September. The N related parameters displayed seasonal courses with highest concentrations during N remobilization in May. Decreased total foliar N contents as well as higher C/N ratios in the stands in central Germany and southern France compared to the other study sites point to an impaired N nutrition status due to lower soil N contents and precipitation perception. TSNN concentrations in leaves and phloem exudates of all study sites were in ranges previously reported, but xylem sap content of amino compounds in July was lower at all study sites when compared to literature data (c. 1 μmol N mL −1 ). In September, TSNN concentrations increased again at the two study sites in southern Germany after a rain event, whereas they remained constant at sites in central Germany and southern France which hardly perceived precipitation during that time. Thus, TSNN concentrations in the xylem sap might be indicative for water balance related N supply in the beech trees. TSNN profiles at all study sites, however, did not indicate drought stress. Foliar δ 13 C, but not foliar C and δ 18 O followed a seasonal trend at all study sites with highest values in May. Differences in foliar δ 13 C and δ 18 O did not reflect climatic differences between the sites, and are attributed to differences in altitude, photosynthesis and δ 18 O signatures of the water sources. Except of low TSNN concentrations in the xylem sap, no physiological indications of drought stress were detected in the trees analysed. We suppose that the other parameters assessed might not have been sensitive to the drought events because of efficient regulation mechanisms that provide a suitable physiological setting even under conditions of prolonged water limitation. The uniform performance of the trees from southern France and central Germany under comparably dry climate conditions denotes that the metabolic plasticity of mature beech from the different sites studied might be similar.
    Keywords: Mature European beech ; North–South transect ; Drought ; Total foliar N ; Amino compounds ; TSNN ; Xylem loading ; Climate
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2017, Vol.31(4), pp.1189-1202
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-017-1537-3 Byline: Bin Hu (1,2), Minghua Zhou (3,6), Silvija Bilela (2), Judy Simon (2,7), Michael Dannenmann (3), Xiping Liu (4), Saleh Alfarraj (5), Lin Hou (1), Hui Chen (1), Shuoxin Zhang (1), Klaus Butterbach-Bahl (3), Heinz Rennenberg (2,5) Keywords: Root nitrogen uptake capacity; Soil microbial biomass; Larix; Quercus; Picea; Qinling Mountains Abstract: Key Message Root N uptake capacity and soil C, N status indicate superior performance of a mixed forest stand with Larix and Quercus compared with the monocultures of Picea and Larix under N limitation condition. Abstract Nitrogen availability and uptake capacity are key factors influencing forest growth and development in N-limited terrestrial ecosystems. With the aim to determine how species and forest management affect tree N nutrition, we conducted root N uptake experiments as well as soil N analyses at three forest stands with different native and introduced tree species (i.e. Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata Maxim. ex Wenz. and Picea wilsonii Mast.) and two management approaches (i.e. monoculture versus mixed stand) in the Qinling Mountains of China. Across the native and introduced species studied, in general, investigated trees take up both, organic and inorganic N compounds, but prefer organic N (Gln- and Arg-) over inorganic NH.sub.4 .sup.+--N. The introduced conifer species (L. principis-ruprechtii) showed higher root N acquisition capacities compared to a native conifer species (P. wilsonii) under N-limited conditions. Moreover, the mixed forest stand with L. principis-ruprechtii and Q. alinea var. acutesserata accumulated more nitrogen in soil pools and showed improved C and N retention capability through the whole soil profile as compared to the monocultures of P. wilsonii or L. principis-ruprechtii. Similar acquisition strategies were observed for specific N sources (i.e. organic versus inorganic) across all investigated tree species. Still the introduced species Larix exhibited a superior root N acquisition capacity and, therefore, may be a good candidate for afforestation programs in the studied region. The present results underpin the significance of forest management practices that achieve a mixed species structure with broadleaved tree species such as Quercus for restoration of soil C and N pools in order to stabilize forest ecosystems and to achieve sustainable forest development. Author Affiliation: (1) College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China (2) Chair of Tree Physiology, Institute of Forest Sciences, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany (3) Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (4) College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China (5) College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (6) Institute of Bio- and Geosciences -- Agrosphere (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich, Germany (7) Chair of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 28/02/2017 Received Date: 18/08/2016 Accepted Date: 10/02/2017 Online Date: 21/03/2017 Article note: Communicated by K. Masaka. Bin Hu and Minghua Zhou contributed equally to this work.
    Keywords: Root nitrogen uptake capacity ; Soil microbial biomass ; Larix ; Quercus ; Picea ; Qinling Mountains
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2007, Vol.21(1), pp.1-11
    Description: Over large areas of Europe, coniferous monocultures are being transformed into mixed forests by the re-introduction of broadleaf tree species belonging to the potential natural vegetation. One important species of interest in this changing forest policy is European beech ( Fagus sylvatica ). However, at present, this forest management directive has ignored potential adverse effects of global climate change on wide-spread re-introduction of beech to these areas. Average global surface temperatures have risen by approx. 0.8°C in the period between 1861 and 2005 and are expected to continue to increase until the end of this century by 1.5–5.8°C above the 1990 value. To estimate the climate change in the southern part of central Europe in future, we reviewed calculations from regional climate models. Temperature increase for the southern part of central Europe is projected to be up to 2°C within the next 40 years. In contrast, the annual precipitation will most likely remain constant over the same time period, but will experience significant changes in seasonal patterns. Rising intensities of individual precipitation events may result in increasing number and intensities of flooding events and reduced precipitation during the growing season in a higher frequency of summer droughts. Growth and competitive ability of European beech will not, necessarily, respond to increasing CO 2 concentrations but may be strongly impacted by intensive drought that occurs during the growing season. Seedlings as well as adult trees may suffer from xylem embolism, restricted nutrient uptake capacity and reduced growth under limited water availability. However, it remains uncertain to what extent other environmental factors (e.g. soil properties, competitive interactions) may modify the drought response of beech, thus either enhancing susceptibility or increasing drought tolerance and resilience potential. Water-logged soils, predicted during the spring for several regions due to higher than average precipitation, could negatively impact nutrient uptake and growth of beech. Whereas other dominant species as, e.g. oak are well adapted to that environmental stress, beech is known to be sensitive to water-logging and flooding. Thus, the competitive capacity of beech might—depending on the other environmental conditions—be reduced under the expected future climate conditions. Silvicultural practices must be aware today of the potential risks which a changing climate may impose on sustainable forest development.
    Keywords: Regional climate model ; Forest management ; Drought ; Air temperature ; Waterlogging ; Elevated CO
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2005, Vol.19(2), pp.204-212
    Description: Sulfate transport processes and its regulation were studied in roots of poplar trees ( Populus tremula x P. alba ). From the exponential increase in sulfate uptake with temperature an activation energy ( E a ) of 9.0±0.8 kJ mol −1 was calculated. In the concentration range 0.005–10 mM sulfate uptake showed biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K m of 3.2±3.4 μM and a V max of 49±11 nmol SO 4 2− g −1 FW h −1 for the high-affinity uptake system (phase 1) and a K m of 1.33±0.41 mM and a V max of 255±25 nmol SO 4 2− g −1 FW h −1 for the low-affinity system (phase 2). Xylem loading decreased linearly with temperature and remained unchanged within the sulfate concentration range studied. Regulation of sulfate uptake and xylem loading by O -acetyl serine (OAS), Cys, reduced glutathione (GSH), Met and S -methylmethionine (SMM) were tested by perfusion into the xylem sap with the pressure probe and by addition to the incubation medium. When added directly to the transport medium, Cys and GSH repressed, and OAS stimulated sulfate uptake; xylem loading was stimulated by Cys, repressed by GSH and only slightly affected by OAS. When perfused into the xylem, none of the compounds tested affected sulfate uptake of excised roots, but xylem loading was stimulated by SMM and OAS and repressed by Met. Apparently, the site of application strongly determined the effect of regulatory compounds of sulfate transport processes.
    Keywords: Cysteine ; Glutathione ; Methionine ; -Acetylserine ; S-Methyl--methionine
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2004, Vol.18(2), pp.157-166
    Description: We investigated the effect of (a) different local climate and (b) thinning of the forest canopy on growth and N status of naturally regenerated European beech seedlings in a beech forest on shallow rendzina soil in southern Germany. For this purpose, a 15 N-tracing experiment was conducted during the growing season of the year 2000 with beech seedlings growing on a warm, dry SW-exposed site and a cooler, moist NE-exposed site, and in a thinned and a control stand at each site. Biomass, 15 N uptake and partitioning and total N concentrations of beech seedlings were determined. Site and thinning produced clear differences, particularly at the end of the growing season. Biomass and cumulative 15 N uptake of beech seedlings then increased due to thinning on the NE site and decreased on the SW site. Total N concentrations in leaves, roots and stems of beech seedlings responded similarly. Therefore, growth and N status of beech seedlings are found to be favoured by thinning under cool-moist conditions. However, under higher temperature and reduced water availability—conditions that are prognosticated in the near future—thinning reduces N uptake and plant N concentration and, thus, impairs N balance and growth of beech regeneration.
    Keywords: Fagus sylvatica ; N tracer ; N balance ; N content ; Growth
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2008, Vol.22(1), pp.105-119
    Description: In a sandy coastal restinga ecosystem NE of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, subject to environmental stress due to high irradiance, high temperature and low water supply, a comparative ecophysiological study of three species of different morphotypes and physiotypes was conducted during the dry season. The morphotypes were two shrubs, Clusia hilariana Schltdl. and Andira legalis (Vell.) Toledo, and the taproot hemicryptophyte Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes) O. Ktze. The physiotype differences were that C. hilariana was performing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), A. legalis was a nodulated N 2 fixing legume and A. arenaria had ample access to water by ground water tapping roots. All three species were light stressed and showed photoinhibition and high maximum values of non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. δ 13 C values of bulk leaf organic matter (which integrate over the life span of the leaf) and instantaneous gas exchange patterns demonstrated that C. hilariana was performing CAM and the other two species C 3 -photosynthesis. A. arenaria performed generous and A. legalis conserving use of water. Based on the CO 2 concentrating mechanism of CAM C. hilariana had the highest maximum rates of apparent photosynthetic electron transport, ETR max . Uptake of atmospheric CO 2 in the afternoon (phase IV of CAM) was expressed weakly showing that the plants were under some but not severe water stress. A. legalis showed the highest levels of total N and soluble non-protein N-compounds in its organs due to N 2 fixation which, however, did not confer a higher photosynthetic capacity that must have been limited by factors other than nitrogen supply. Accumulation of amino compounds like proline and γ-aminobutyric acid in leaves of A. legalis which are known to act as osmoprotectants is likely to indicate drought stress in the dry season. Maximum net CO 2 uptake of photosynthesis was higher in the water spending A. arenaria than in A. legalis . The comparative analysis of physiological traits characterised either instantaneously or integrated over the longer term shows that in addition to morphotypic characteristics physiotypic characteristics are important for space occupation and niche acquisition of the plants in the restinga.
    Keywords: Allagoptera arenaria ; Andira legalis ; Clusia hilariana ; Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) ; Photosynthesis ; Restinga ; Stable isotopes ; Soluble N compounds
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2004, Vol.18(3), pp.320-326
    Description: Plants cover their need for sulfur by taking up inorganic sulfate, reducing it to sulfide, and incorporating it into the amino acid cysteine. In herbaceous plants the pathway of assimilatory sulfate reduction is highly regulated by the availability of the nutrients sulfate and nitrate. To investigate the regulation of sulfate assimilation in deciduous trees we used the poplar hybrid Populus tremula × P. alba as a model. The enzymes of the pathway are present in several isoforms, except for sulfite reductase and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase; the genomic organization of the pathway is thus similar to herbaceous plants. The mRNA level of APS reductase, the key enzyme of the pathway, was induced by 3 days of sulfur deficiency and reduced by nitrogen deficiency in the roots, whereas in the leaves it was affected only by the withdrawal of nitrogen. When both nutrients were absent, the mRNA levels did not differ from those in control plants. Four weeks of sulfur deficiency did not affect growth of the poplar plants, but the content of glutathione, the most abundant low molecular thiol, was reduced compared to control plants. Sulfur limitation resulted in an increase in mRNA levels of ATP sulfurylase, APS reductase, and sulfite reductase, probably as an adaptation mechanism to increase the efficiency of the sulfate assimilation pathway. Altogether, although distinct differences were found, e.g. no effect of sulfate deficiency on APR in poplar leaves, the regulation of sulfate assimilation by nutrient availability observed in poplar was similar to the regulation described for herbaceous plants.
    Keywords: Adenosine 5′phosphosulfate reductase ; Glutathione ; Nutrient deficiency ; Poplar ; Sulfate assimilation
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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