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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 28 June 2013, Vol.164(3-4), pp.212-221
    Description: Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an acute and highly contagious enteric disease of swine caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The porcine intestinal epithelial cell is the PEDV target cell. In this study, we established a porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line which can stably express PEDV N protein. We also investigate the subcellular localization and function of PEDV N protein by examining its effects on cell growth, cycle progression, interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression, and survival. The results show that the PEDV N protein localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), inhibits the IEC growth and prolongs S-phase cell cycle. The S-phase is prolonged which is associated with a decrease of cyclin A transcription level and an increase of cyclin A degradation. The IEC expressing PEDV N protein can express higher levels of IL-8 than control cells. Further studies show that PEDV N protein induces ER stress and activates NF-κB, which is responsible for the up-regulation of IL-8 and Bcl-2 expression. This is the first report to demonstrate that PEDV N protein can induce cell cycle prolongation at the S-phase, ER stress and up-regulation interleukin-8 expression. These findings provide novel information on the function of the PEDV N protein and are likely to be very useful in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for PEDV pathogenesis.
    Keywords: Pedv ; N Protein ; S-Phase ; Er Stress ; Il-8 ; Nf-Κb ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 23 April 2012, Vol.156(1-2), pp.193-199
    Description: Despite the long-term vaccination programs implemented in China, H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) continue to persist in chicken populations, even in vaccinated flocks. We previously demonstrated that H9N2 AIV isolated from chickens in China also underwent antigenic drift and evolved into distinct antigenic groups (C, D and E). To understand whether antigenic drift of viruses away from the vaccine strain partially contributed to the circulation of H9N2 AIV in China, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a commercial vaccine against different antigenic groups of H9N2 AIV. Challenge experiments using vaccinated chickens indicated that the vaccine prevented shedding of antigenic group C viruses, but not those of the more recent groups D and E. Vaccinated chickens, even those with vaccine-induced HI titers of 1:1024, shed virus after being infected with A/chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007, a representative virus of antigenic group D. Genetic analysis showed that the representative viruses of antigenic groups D and E possessed greater numbers of amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin protein compared to the vaccine strain and the antigenic group C virus, and many of which were located in antigenic sites. Our results indicated that the persistence of H9N2 AIV in China might be due to incomplete vaccine protection, and that the avian influenza vaccine should be regularly evaluated and updated to maintain optimal protection. Furthermore, the avian influenza vaccination policy also needs to be re-assessed, and increased veterinary biosecurity on farms, rather than vaccine application alone, should be implemented to prevent and control avian influenza.
    Keywords: Avian Influenza Virus ; H9n2 ; Antigenic Drift ; Vaccine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 10 January 2014, Vol.168(1), pp.193-196
    Description: Influenza viruses have been isolated from dogs in China; however, the extent of influenza infection among dogs is not yet clear. Here, we examined the seroprevalence of avian-origin canine H3N2, pandemic H1N1/09 and human seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses in pet dogs in China during January 2012 to June 2013. The seropositivity rate of canine H3N2, H1N1/09 and human H3N2 were 3.5%, 1.5%, and 1.2%, respectively. Dogs aged 2–5 years were most commonly seropositive to canine H3N2 virus. It is worth noting that two serum samples were positive against both canine H3N2 and H1N1/09 viruses, suggesting the possibility of coinfection with both viruses. Our findings emphasize the necessity for continued surveillance of influenza viruses in dogs in China.
    Keywords: Influenza ; Antibodies ; Dog ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 15 January 2016, Vol.182, pp.1-7
    Description: We previously demonstrated that H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from 1994 to 2008 evolved into distinct antigenic groups (C, D, and E) and then underwent antigenic drift from commercial vaccines, causing a country-wide outbreak during 2010–2013. In this study, H9N2 AIVs isolated from chickens during 2009–2013 were antigenically analyzed by performing hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization assays using a panel of polyclonal antibodies. Our findings confirmed the antigenic drift of recent H9N2 viruses from the commercial vaccine and showed that most of these antigenic variants form a novel HI antigenic group, F, with a few belonging to groups D and E. Slight antigenic variation was observed in group F viruses. Genetic analysis of amino acid sequences deduced from hemagglutinin ( ) gene sequences indicated that 9 of 15 mutations predominant in the 2009-2013 viruses can be mapped to known antigenic sites, which might be responsible for the novel antigenicity of group F. These antigenic changes make it necessary to modify the influenza vaccine to ensure efficient protection. A vaccine candidate, Ck/HeB/YT/10, was selected and provided significant protection against viruses from different antigenic groups in terms of reduction in virus shedding, suggesting broad cross-reactivity. Taken together, our results indicate that the H9N2 chicken influenza viruses in China have evolved from distinct antigenic groups into a novel group F that became dominant during the country-wide outbreak and now seems to be undergoing new antigenic divergence. Systematic surveillance and timely updating of vaccine strains are important for viral prevention and control in the future.
    Keywords: H9n2 ; Chicken Influenza Virus ; Antigenic Evolution ; Vaccine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 27 September 2013, Vol.166(1-2), pp.68-75
    Description: To analyze the status of reticuloendotheliosis (RE) infection of wild birds in China, 585 samples from wild birds collected in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces China were investigated and analyzed. The sampled birds represent 3 orders and more than 40 species. Virus isolation and PCR amplification showed that some of the wild birds were infected with REV, and 10 REV strains were isolated. The gp90 gene from each of the 10 REV strains was amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that the gp90 genes of the 10 REV strains isolated in this study were more similar at the nucleotide level with the northeast Chinese strains HLJR0901 and HLJR0801 and some REV strains found in the US and Taiwan than with the early Chinese REV isolate HA9901. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gp90 genes of the 10 REV strains were more similar to the REV subtype III-representing strain (CSV) than to strains 170A (subtype I) or SNV (subtype II). This is the first study to investigate the status of wild birds infected with REV. The results of this paper will not only provide necessary information for further understanding the evolution of REV, but they also identify the potential role of wild birds in REV transmission and furthers our understanding of the ecology of REV in wild bird species.
    Keywords: Reticuloendotheliosis Virus ; Wild Birds ; Isolation ; Characterization ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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