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  • English  (12,795)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 19 December 2014, Vol.346(6216), pp.1456-7
    Description: How do electric fields affect enzymatic processes? Binding and crystallographic studies have shown that electrostatic interactions are important in the substrate-binding step that initiates enzyme catalysis. However, for the subsequent steps, experimental data have been limited. The study of electric field effects on the transition state was therefore largely restricted to theory (1). On page 1510 of this issue, Fried et al. (2) use a recently developed technique to quantify the electrostatic contribution to the ratelimiting step of an enzymatic reaction. They show that the local electric field accelerates the reaction, a finding that is likely to apply to other catalytic reactions.
    Keywords: Static Electricity ; Ketosteroids -- Metabolism ; Steroid Isomerases -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Investigation, July, 2011, Vol.121(7), p.2532(1)
    Keywords: Anatomists -- Biography ; Manzolini, Anna Morandi;
    ISSN: 0021-9738
    E-ISSN: 15588238
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Oct 15, 2012, Vol.717, p.83(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2012.07.014 Byline: Bjorn Hildebrandt, Christian Ganter Abstract: Detailed studies concerning the reactivity of the dicationic organometallic carbene precursor 1 and its related free cationic carbene 2 have been carried out. While dication 1 is stable in O-donor solvents like acetone, nitromethane and even water, it is degraded by softer nucleophiles like acetonitrile or electron rich aromatics. In contrast to the hydrolytic stability of dication 1, the cationic carbene 2a reacts readily with water to form the ring-opened formamide derivative 5a. The mechanism of the hydrolytic cleavage reaction was analysed by DFT calculations. Author Affiliation: Institut fur Anorganische Chemie und Strukturchemie, Heinrich-Heine-Universitat Dusseldorf, Universitatsstr, 1, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany Article History: Received 29 February 2012; Revised 10 July 2012; Accepted 12 July 2012
    Keywords: Nitriles
    ISSN: 0022-328X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, September 2013, Vol.38(9), pp.1923-1927
    Description: Appetitive behaviors such as substance use and eating are under significant regulatory control by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Recent research has begun to examine how these systems interact to cause and maintain poor regulation of these appetitive behaviors. A range of potential molecular, neuroendocrine, and hormonal mechanisms are involved in these interactions and may explain individual differences in both risk and resilience to a range of addictions. This manuscript provides a commentary on research presented during the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology's mini-conference on sex differences in eating and addiction with an emphasis on how HPG and HPA axis interactions affect appetitive behaviors in classic addictions and may be used to help inform the ongoing debate about the validity of food addiction.
    Keywords: Hypothalamic-Pituitary Gonadal Axis ; Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis ; Food Addiction ; Substance Abuse ; Sex Differences ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0306-4530
    E-ISSN: 1873-3360
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Neurochemistry, January 2014, Vol.128(2), pp.206-209
    Description: ‘’ on doi:
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0022-3042
    E-ISSN: 1471-4159
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Current Opinion in Neurobiology, Feb, 2014, Vol.24, p.82(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2013.08.020 Byline: K Jannis Hildebrandt Abstract: acents Topographic representation of spectral and temporal cues in mammals. acents Early integration of spectral and temporal cues in insects. acents Non-linear and highly selective representation in insects. acents Topographic representation could be advantageous for plasticity of behavior. acents Similar algorithmic principles in insects and mammals at the perceptual level. Author Affiliation: (1) Cluster of Excellence "Hearing4all", University of Oldenburg, Germany (2) Auditory Neuroscience Group, Department of Neuroscience, University of Oldenburg, Germany
    Keywords: Animal Behavior
    ISSN: 0959-4388
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 23 December 2011, Vol.334(6063), pp.1699-703
    Description: Several groups of tetrapods have expanded sesamoid (small, tendon-anchoring) bones into digit-like structures ("predigits"), such as pandas' "thumbs." Elephants similarly have expanded structures in the fat pads of their fore- and hindfeet, but for three centuries these have been overlooked as mere cartilaginous curiosities. We show that these are indeed massive sesamoids that employ a patchy mode of ossification of a massive cartilaginous precursor and that the predigits act functionally like digits. Further, we reveal clear osteological correlates of predigit joint articulation with the carpals/tarsals that are visible in fossils. Our survey shows that basal proboscideans were relatively "flat-footed" (plantigrade), whereas early elephantiforms evolved the more derived "tip-toed" (subunguligrade) morphology, including the predigits and fat pad, of extant elephants. Thus, elephants co-opted sesamoid bones into a role as false digits and used them for support as they changed their foot posture.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Elephants -- Anatomy & Histology ; Foot -- Anatomy & Histology ; Sesamoid Bones -- Anatomy & Histology ; Toes -- Anatomy & Histology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 8
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2011, Vol.364(16), pp.1533-1543
    Description: A ciliopathy is a disease in which a hairlike cellular organelle called the cilium is dysfunctional. Most proteins altered in these single-gene disorders function at the level of the cilium–centrosome complex. This review considers the role of the cilium in disease. Diverse developmental and degenerative single-gene disorders such as polycystic kidney disease, nephronophthisis, retinitis pigmentosa, the Bardet–Biedl syndrome, the Joubert syndrome, and the Meckel syndrome may be categorized as ciliopathies — a recent concept that describes diseases characterized by dysfunction of a hairlike cellular organelle called the cilium. Most of the proteins that are altered in these single-gene disorders function at the level of the cilium–centrosome complex, which represents nature's universal system for cellular detection and management of external signals. Cilia are microtubule-based structures found on almost all vertebrate cells. They originate from a basal body, a modified centrosome, which is . . .
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 March 2011, Vol.109(5)
    Description: Self-organized nano-cone arrays are fabricated on Si (100) by means of Ar + ion bombardment at normal incidence with ion energy of 1.5 keV and current density of 1000 µA cm −2 . The nano-structured Si surface appears black as seen by the naked eye. The measured reflectance of the surface is less than 11% over the wavelength range from 350 to 2000 nm as compared to that of 〉∼30% for the polished Si. An enhancement of more than 25% in absorption is observed in this region. The cones are densely distributed over the surface with an average height of ∼350 nm and base width of ∼250 nm. Incorporation of metal atoms such as Fe and Cr is found to be mandatory for the formation of the nano-structures during ion bombardment. High-resolution electron spectra show that for each cone, the apex is metal-enriched, and the rest is nearly free of metal atoms, showing good crystallinity with the same crystallographic orientation as the substrate.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 December 2012, Vol.112(11)
    Description: We have conducted a detailed thin film growth structure of oxygen engineered monoclinic HfO 2 ± x grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. The oxidation conditions induce a switching between ( 1 ¯ 11 ) and (002) texture of hafnium oxide. The band gap of oxygen deficient hafnia decreases with increasing amount of oxygen vacancies by more than 1 eV. For high oxygen vacancy concentrations, defect bands form inside the band gap that induce optical transitions and p -type conductivity. The resistivity changes by several orders of magnitude as a function of oxidation conditions. Oxygen vacancies do not give rise to ferromagnetic behavior.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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