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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 24 November 2015, Vol.112(47), pp.14647-51
    Description: The desiccation of upper soil horizons is a common phenomenon, leading to a decrease in soil microbial activity and mineralization. Recent studies have shown that fungal communities and fungal-based food webs are less sensitive and better adapted to soil desiccation than bacterial-based food webs. One reason for a better fungal adaptation to soil desiccation may be hydraulic redistribution of water by mycelia networks. Here we show that a saprotrophic fungus (Agaricus bisporus) redistributes water from moist (-0.03 MPa) into dry (-9.5 MPa) soil at about 0.3 cm ⋅ min(-1) in single hyphae, resulting in an increase in soil water potential after 72 h. The increase in soil moisture by hydraulic redistribution significantly enhanced carbon mineralization by 2,800% and enzymatic activity by 250-350% in the previously dry soil compartment within 168 h. Our results demonstrate that hydraulic redistribution can partly compensate water deficiency if water is available in other zones of the mycelia network. Hydraulic redistribution is likely one of the mechanisms behind higher drought resistance of soil fungi compared with bacteria. Moreover, hydraulic redistribution by saprotrophic fungi is an underrated pathway of water transport in soils and may lead to a transfer of water to zones of high fungal activity.
    Keywords: Carbon Mineralization ; Drought ; Hydraulic Redistribution ; Saprotrophic Fungi ; Agaricus -- Metabolism ; Carbon -- Metabolism ; Minerals -- Metabolism ; Soil -- Chemistry ; Water -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.371(1), pp.435-446
    Description: Background and aims: The partitioning of below ground carbon inputs into roots and extramatrical ectomycorrhizal mycelium (ECM) is crucial for the C cycle in forest soils. Here we studied simultaneously the newly grown biomass of ECM and fine roots in a young Norway spruce stand. Methods: Ingrowth mesh bags of 16 cm diameter and 12 cm height were placed in the upper soil and left for 12 to 16 months. The 2 mm mesh size allowed the ingrowth of fungal hyphae and roots whereas a 45 mu m mesh size allowed only the ingrowth of hyphae. The mesh bags were filled with either EA horizon soil, pure quartz sand or crushed granite. Controls without any ingrowth were established for each substrate by solid tubes (2010) and by 1 mu m mesh bags (2011). The fungal biomass in the substrates was estimated by the PLFA 18:2 omega 6,9 and ECM biomass was calculated as difference between fungal biomass in mesh bags and controls. Results: The maximum ECM biomass was 438 kg ha super(-1) in October 2010 in 2 mm mesh bags with EA substrate, and the minimum was close to zero in 2011 in 45 mu m mesh bags with quartz sand. The high P content of the crushed granite did not influence the ECM biomass. Fine root biomass reached a maximum of 2,343 kg ha super(-1) in October 2010 in mesh bags with quartz sand after 16 months exposure. In quartz sand and crushed granite, ECM biomass correlated positively with fine root biomass and the number of root tips, and negatively with specific root length. Conclusion: The ratio of ECM biomass/fine root biomass in October ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 in quartz sand and crushed granite, but from 0.7 to 1.8 in the EA substrate. The results for the EA substrate suggest a large C flux to ECM under field conditions.
    Keywords: Biomass ; Ectomycorrhizal mycelium ; Fine roots ; Ingrowth bags ; Substrate quality ; Norway spruce
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2014, Vol.378(1), pp.73-82
    Description: Background and aims Partitioning of soil respiration is a challenging task when resolving the C cycling in forest ecosystems. Our aim was to partition the respiration of newly grown extramatrical ectomycorrhizal mycelium (ECM) and fine roots (and their associated microorganisms) in a young Norway spruce forest. Methods Ingrowth mesh bags of 16 cm diameter and 12 cm height were placed in the upper soil and left for 12-16 months in 2010 and 2011. The 2 mm mesh size allowed the ingrowth of ECM and fine roots whereas a 45 [micro]m mesh size allowed only the ingrowth of ECM. The mesh bags were filled with either homogenized EA horizon soil, pure quartz sand (QS) or crushed granite (CG, only 2011), each with five replicates. Controls without any ingrowth were established for each substrate by solid plastic tubes (2010) and by 1 [micro]m mesh bags (2011). Fluxes of C[O.sub.2] from the mesh bags and controls were measured biweekly during the growing season by the closed chamber method. Results The contribution of ECM to soil respiration was largest in the QS treatments, reaching cumulatively 1.2 and 2.2 Mg C [ha.sup.-1] 6 [months.sup.-1] in 2010 and 2011, respectively. For EA and CG treatments, the cumulative respiration from ECM was larger than from controls, however the differences being not statistically significant. The respiration of newly grown fine roots in QS amounted to 1.0 Mg C [ha.sup.-1] in 2010, but could not be identified in 2011 since fluxes from 2 mm and 45 [micro]m mesh bags were similar. The correlation of total root length in single QS mesh bags to C[O.sub.2] fluxes was poor. The contribution of fine root respiration was also not detectable in the EA and CG treatment. No correlation was found between the autumnal biomass of newly grown ECM and its cumulative respiration. Conclusion Our results suggest a substantial contribution of newly grown ECM to soil respiration. Respiration of ECM might be larger than respiration of fine roots. Keywords Soil respiration * Carbon allocation * Ectomycorrhiza * Picea abies * Fine roots
    Keywords: Soil respiration ; Carbon allocation ; Ectomycorrhiza ; Picea abies ; Fine roots
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Feb, 2014, Vol.69, p.320(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.11.014 Byline: Marianne Schutt, Werner Borken, Oliver Spott, Claus Florian Stange, Egbert Matzner Abstract: Climate models predict warmer winter in temperate regions, but little is known about the temperature sensitivity of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization at low temperatures. Here, we assess the temperature sensitivities of gross ammonification, gross nitrification, C and net N mineralization of top soil horizons, under a European beech and a Norway spruce temperate forest. We tested the hypotheses that (1) substrate quality affects the temperature sensitivity of C and N mineralization and (2) that temperature sensitivity of C mineralization is higher than of gross ammonification. Soil incubations were conducted at constant temperatures of -4, -1, +2, +5 and +8 [degrees]C. Gross ammonification and nitrification were measured by the.sup.15N pool dilution technique. Temperature sensitivities of C, gross and net N mineralization were calculated using the Arrhenius equation and C mineralization was taken as proxy for substrate quality. Gross ammonification and C mineralization was much larger in the beech than in the spruce soil, while gross nitrification was in the same order of magnitude. Gross ammonification, nitrification and C mineralization almost ceased at -4 [degrees]C, but already increased at -1 [degrees]C. Net ammonification in Oi/Oe horizons was low at -4 and -1 [degrees]C and increased strongly between +2 and +8 [degrees]C. Net nitrification was low in both soils, but increased in the spruce soil at temperatures 〉2 [degrees]C whereas no temperature response occurred in the beech soil. Apparent Q.sub.10 values of gross ammonification and C mineralization in the temperature range of -4 to +8 [degrees]C were in the range of 3-18. Q.sub.10 were lowest in soil horizons of low substrate quality. The ratio of C mineralization to gross ammonification varied between 0.5 and 2.9, suggesting preferential mineralization of N rich organic substrates or rapid turnover of the N pool in microbial biomass. Rising winter temperatures might have substantial effects on net N mineralization, but effects decrease with soil depth, likely due to decreasing substrate quality of soil organic matter. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Soil Ecology, University of Bayreuth, 95448 Bayreuth, Germany (b) Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, UFZ, 06120 Halle/Saale, Germany (c) Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Fachbereich B2.4 "Boden als Ressource - Stoffeigenschaften und -dynamik", 30655 Hannover, Germany Article History: Received 21 June 2013; Revised 7 November 2013; Accepted 14 November 2013
    Keywords: Soil Biology -- Analysis ; Nitrification -- Analysis ; Soil Ecology -- Analysis ; Forest Soils -- Analysis ; Soil Carbon -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Dec 15, 2013, Vol.310, p.110(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.08.006 Byline: Michael Goisser, Ulrich Zang, Egbert Matzner, Werner Borken, Karl-Heinz Haberle, Rainer Matyssek Abstract: acents Response of juvenile European beech upon transplant to heterogeneous light and water availability. acents Plant response was examined along the gradients of light and water availability. acents High light acclimation exacerbated productivity decline under drought. acents Progressive acclimation to shade and drought mitigated productivity decline within the study period. Article History: Received 18 April 2013; Revised 4 August 2013; Accepted 5 August 2013
    Keywords: Water ; Industrial Productivity
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2011, Vol.43(2), pp.333-338
    Description: Changes in the soil water regime, predicted as a consequence of global climate change, might influence the N cycle in temperate forest soils. We investigated the effect of decreasing soil water potentials on gross ammonification and nitrification in different soil horizons of a Norway spruce forest and tested the hypotheses that i) gross rates are more sensitive to desiccation in the Oa and EA horizon as compared to the uppermost Oi/Oe horizon and ii) that gross nitrification is more sensitive than gross ammonification. Soil samples were adjusted by air drying to water potentials from about field capacity to around −1.0 MPa, a range that is often observed under field conditions at our site. Gross rates were measured using the N pool dilution technique. To ensure that the addition of solute label to dry soils and the local rewetting does not affect the results by re-mineralization or preferential consumption of N, we compared different extraction and incubation times. T times ranging from 10 to 300 min and incubation times of 48 h and 72 h did not influence the rates of gross ammonification and nitrification. Even small changes of water potential decreased gross ammonification and nitrification in the O horizon. In the EA horizon, gross nitrification was below detection limit and the response of the generally low rates of gross ammonification to decreasing water potentials was minor. In the Oi/Oe horizon gross ammonification and nitrification decreased from 37.5 to 18.3 mg N kg  soil d and from 15.4 to 5.6 mg N kg  soil d when the water potential decreased from field capacity to −0.8 MPa. In the Oa horizon gross ammonification decreased from 7.4 to 4.0 mg N kg  soil d when the water potential reached −0.6 MPa. At such water potential nitrification almost ceased, while in the Oi/Oe horizon nitrification continued at a rather high level. Hence, only in the Oa horizon nitrification was more sensitive to desiccation than ammonification. Extended drought periods that might result from climate change will cause a reduction in gross N turnover rates in forest soils even at moderate levels of soil desiccation. ► Even small changes of water potential decreased gross N turnover rates in the O horizon. ► Only in the Oa horizon gross nitrification was more sensitive to desiccation than ammonification. ► A reduction in gross N turnover rates can be expected in forest soils even at moderate desiccation.
    Keywords: 15n Pool Dilution Technique ; Norway Spruce ; Forest Soil ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, July 2017, Vol.110, pp.1-7
    Description: Previous work has shown that the drying/rewetting (D/W) of soils mobilizes phosphorus (P), and that the effect of D/W on P release likely depends on the soil microbial community composition. We tested the hypotheses that (i) P release after D/W from fungi is lower than from bacteria and that (ii) gram-positive bacteria are less susceptible to D/W than gram-negative bacteria. We investigated the release of dissolved organic (DOP) and inorganic phosphorus (DIP) from bacterial and fungal biomass after rewetting of an artificial soil that was desiccated to different degrees. For this purpose, sterilized soil amended with growth medium was inoculated separately with one of two bacterial strains ( gram-negative and gram-positive) or with one fungal strain ( ). The bacterial strains were grown for 7 days, the fungus for 25 days at 50% soil water holding capacity. After the pre-incubation period, microbial biomass P (Pmic) was determined by chloroform fumigation extraction, and soils were desiccated at 20 °C for 5–8 days until pF 6 (−100 MPa) was reached, while the controls were kept permanently at 50% water holding capacity. At different degrees of desiccation, samples were destructively harvested and soils were extracted with water to measure the release of DIP and DOP. The net release of total dissolved P per unit Pmic following D/W was in the order  =  In case of , net release started already after desiccation to pF 4 (−1.0 MPa) and increased with further desiccation. For and , a tendency for net release was only observed after severe desiccation up to pF 6. Our results suggest that the effect of D/W on P release from microbial biomass depends largely on the microbial community composition, with fungi and gram-positive bacteria being less susceptible to D/W than gram-negative bacteria.
    Keywords: Drying–Rewetting ; Dissolved Phosphorus ; Soil Microbial Biomass ; Saprotrophic Fungi ; Gram-Positive Bacteria ; Gram-Negative Bacteria ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 December 2013, Vol.310, pp.110-119
    Description: Climate models predict increasing frequency and intensity of summer drought events for Central Europe. In a field experiment, we investigated the response of young beech ( L.) to extreme and repeated summer drought and the modulation of drought response patterns along the natural gradient of light availability at the study site. In autumn 2008, two-year-old, nursery derived beech – as used for forest conversion practices – was planted under a Norway spruce stand primarily opened through winter storm. Precipitation was manipulated in the growing seasons of 2009 through 2011, inducing a pronounced gradient of water availability. Individual drought-stress doses (DSD) and light doses (LD) were calculated for each beech sapling during the three growing seasons. Plant growth, CO -assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were reduced with increasing drought stress, but facilitated by increasing light availability. Progressive acclimation to water and light limitation during the three years of the experiment led to a decreased drought and shade sensitivity of diameter growth. Water-use efficiency, root/shoot ratio and rooting depth, were increased with decreasing water availability. Mean fine root diameter and specific fine root length correlated positively with both DSD and LD. Proceeding low-light acclimation was indicated by progressively increasing specific leaf area and reduced leaf dark-respiration. Present results suggest that nursery-induced high-light acclimation of the beech saplings, exacerbated light limitation upon transplant and hence productivity decline under co-occurring water limitation.
    Keywords: European Beech ; Drought ; Light ; Restoration ; Acclimation ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, December 2016, Vol.103, pp.380-387
    Description: Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of water from wet to dry soil compartments by non-differentiated mycelium was recently shown for the saprotrophic fungus . The redistributed water triggered the carbon (C) mineralization in the dry soil. The potential of other saprotrophic fungal species and their mycelia networks for HR in soils is unknown. Here, we tested the potential for HR of the mycelial cord forming species compared it to capillary water transport in a sandy soil and assessed the impact of HR on C mineralization and enzyme activities in mesocosm experiments with dry and wet soil compartments using labeled water ( H) and labeled organic substrate ( C, N). Further, we determined nitrogen (N) translocation between the soil compartments by the mycelium of and . The flow velocity of redistributed water in single hyphae of was about 0.43 cm min which is 1.5–2 times higher than in hyphae of , suggesting that cords enhance fungal HR. The amount of redistributed water was similar to capillary transport in the sterile sandy soil. Despite greater potential for HR, only slightly increased C mineralization and enzyme activity in the dry soil within 7 days. translocated N towards the organic substrate in the dry soil and used it for hyphal growth whereas redistributed N within the mycelial network towards the wet soil. Our results suggest that fungal hyphae have the potential to overcome capillary barriers between dry and wet soil compartments via HR and that the impact of fungal HR on C mineralization and N translocation is related to the foraging strategy and the resource usage of the fungus species.
    Keywords: Saprotrophic Fungi ; Hydraulic Redistribution ; Drought ; Carbon Mineralization ; Nitrogen Translocation ; Foraging Strategy ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2011, Vol.43, pp.333-338
    Description: Changes in the soil water regime, predicted as a consequence of global climate change, might influence the N cycle in temperate forest soils. We investigated the effect of decreasing soil water potentials on gross ammonification and nitrification in different soil horizons of a Norway spruce forest and tested the hypotheses that i) gross rates are more sensitive to desiccation in the Oa and EA horizon as compared to the uppermost Oi/Oe horizon and ii) that gross nitrification is more sensitive than gross ammonification. Soil samples were adjusted by air drying to water potentials from about field capacity to around −1.0 MPa, a range that is often observed under field conditions at our site. Gross rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique. To ensure that the addition of solute label to dry soils and the local rewetting does not affect the results by re-mineralization or preferential consumption of 15N, we compared different extraction and incubation times. T0 times ranging from 10 to 300 min and incubation times of 48 h and 72 h did not influence the rates of gross ammonification and nitrification. Even small changes of water potential decreased gross ammonification and nitrification in the O horizon. In the EA horizon, gross nitrification was below detection limit and the response of the generally low rates of gross ammonification to decreasing water potentials was minor. In the Oi/Oe horizon gross ammonification and nitrification decreased from 37.5 to 18.3 mg N kg−1 soil d−1 and from 15.4 to 5.6 mg N kg−1 soil d−1 when the water potential decreased from field capacity to −0.8 MPa. In the Oa horizon gross ammonification decreased from 7.4 to 4.0 mg N kg−1 soil d−1 when the water potential reached −0.6 MPa. At such water potential nitrification almost ceased, while in the Oi/Oe horizon nitrification continued at a rather high level. Hence, only in the Oa horizon nitrification was more sensitive to desiccation than ammonification. Extended drought periods that might result from climate change will cause a reduction in gross N turnover rates in forest soils even at moderate levels of soil desiccation. ; Includes references ; p. 333-338.
    Keywords: Forest Soils ; Coniferous Forests ; Soil Water Content ; Detection Limit ; Acid Soils ; Forest Trees ; Climate Change ; Drought ; Ammonification ; Nitrogen ; Biogeochemical Cycles ; Soil Horizons ; Nitrification ; Soil Water Regimes ; Mineralization ; Picea Abies ; Temperate Forests ; Soil Water Potential ; Soil Desiccation
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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