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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, CA: Public Library of Science
    Description: This article explores the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host antimicrobial peptides as mechanisms for urinary tract infection risk.
    Keywords: Resident Bacterial Communities ; Host Antimicrobial Peptides ; Urinary Tract Infection
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, Dec 8, 2014, Vol.9(12)
    Description: Resident bacterial communities (microbiota) and host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are both essential components of normal host innate immune responses that limit infection and pathogen induced inflammation. However, their interdependence has not been investigated in the context of urinary tract infection (UTI) susceptibility. Here, we explored the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host AMP responses as mechanisms for UTI risk. Using prospectively collected day of surgery (DOS) urine specimens from female pelvic floor surgery participants, we report that the relative abundance and/or frequency of specific urinary microbiota distinguished between participants who did or did not develop a post-operative UTI. Furthermore, UTI risk significantly correlated with both specific urinary microbiota and [beta]-defensin AMP levels. Finally, urinary AMP hydrophobicity and protease activity were greater in participants who developed UTI, and correlated positively with both UTI risk and pelvic floor symptoms. These data demonstrate an interdependency between the urinary microbiota, AMP responses and symptoms, and identify a potential mechanism for UTI risk. Assessment of bacterial microbiota and host innate immune AMP responses in parallel may identify increased risk of UTI in certain populations.
    Keywords: Peptides – Health Aspects ; Proteases – Health Aspects ; Urinary Tract Infections – Risk Factors ; Urinary Tract Infections – Health Aspects ; Microbiota (Symbiotic Organisms) – Health Aspects
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biochemistry, 05 September 2006, Vol.45(35), pp.10674-81
    Description: Bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a light-driven proton pump in Halobacterium salinarum, accommodates two resting forms of the retinylidene chromophore, the all-trans form (AT-BR) and the 13-cis,15-syn form (13C-BR). Both isomers are present in thermal equilibrium in the dark, but only the all-trans form has proton-pump activity. In this study, we applied low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to 13C-BR at 77 K and compared the local structure around the chromophore before and after photoisomerization with that in AT-BR. Strong hydrogen-out-of-plane (HOOP) vibrations were observed at 964 and 958 cm(-)(1) for the K state of 13C-BR (13C-BR(K)) versus a vibration at 957 cm(-)(1) for the K state of AT-BR (AT-BR(K)). In AT-BR(K), but not in 13C-BR(K), the HOOP modes exhibit isotope shifts upon deuteration of the retinylidene at C15 and at the Schiff base nitrogen. Whereas the HOOP modes of AT-BR(K) were significantly affected by the mutation of Thr89, this was not the case for the HOOP modes of 13C-BR(K). These observations imply that, while the chromophore distortion is localized near the Schiff base in AT-BR(K), it is located elsewhere in 13C-BR(K). By use of [zeta-(15)N]lysine-labeled BR, we identified the N-D stretching vibrations of the 13C-BR Schiff base (in D(2)O) at 2173 and 2056 cm(-)(1), close in frequency to those of AT-BR. These frequencies indicate strong hydrogen bonding of the Schiff base in 13C-BR, presumably with a water molecule as in AT-BR. In contrast, the N-D stretching vibration appears at 2332 and 2276 cm(-)(1) in 13C-BR(K) versus values of 2495 and 2468 cm(-)(1) for AT-BR(K), suggesting that the rupture of the Schiff base hydrogen bond that occurs in AT-BR(K) does not occur in 13C-BR(K). Rotational motion of the Schiff base upon retinal isomerization is probably smaller in magnitude for 13C-BR than for AT-BR. These differences in the primary step are possibly related to the absence of light-driven proton pumping by 13C-BR.
    Keywords: Isomerism ; Bacteriorhodopsins -- Chemistry ; Retina -- Metabolism ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared -- Methods
    ISSN: 0006-2960
    E-ISSN: 15204995
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Translational Research, 2010, Vol.156(2), pp.98-105
    Description: Activating V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) gene mutations are important predictive markers for antiepidermal growth factor receptor chemotherapy in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, a rapid and accurate assay for KRAS/BRAF mutation detection from routine pathological specimens is lacking in clinical practice. We applied the cycleave polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to routine KRAS/BRAF genotyping of CRC patients at our institution from 2001 to 2009. The accuracy of cycleave PCR genotyping was shown by the high concordance with reverse transcriptase-PCR-coupled direct sequencing. KRAS gene mutations were analyzed successfully from small biopsy or cytology specimens. Although some surgical specimens could not be evaluated by cycleave PCR, corresponding biopsy specimens could be used instead. This PCR failure observed for some biopsy specimens may have been a result of the use of formalin fixation, as overfixation of surgical specimens by formalin impaired PCR amplification. In conclusion, cycleave PCR is practically applicable to KRAS/BRAF genotyping using small amounts of biopsied tumor cells. Care must be taken in the selection of pathological specimens for KRAS/BRAF testing.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1931-5244
    E-ISSN: 1878-1810
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, pp. 1376-1383
    Description: Article on evidence of uncultivated bacteria in the adult female bladder.
    Keywords: Uropathogens ; Clinical Cultivation ; Uncultivated Bacteria ; Urinary Tract Conditions
    ISSN: 1098660X
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 6
    In: Clinical Case Reports, September 2018, Vol.6(9), pp.1769-1773
    Description: We report a case of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis complicated with acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia in a young Japanese woman. A precise examination of the lipid profile showed decreased lipoprotein lipase () and hepatic triglyceride lipase activity levels, while the mass was at the minimum level of the normal range. We report a case of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis complicated with acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia in a young Japanese woman. A precise examination of the lipid profile showed decreased lipoprotein lipase () and hepatic triglyceride lipase activity levels, while the mass was at the minimum level of the normal range.
    Keywords: Hepatic Triglyceride Lipase ; Hypertriglyceridemia ; Lipoprotein Lipase ; Non‐Alcoholic Steatohepatitis ; Severe Acute Pancreatitis
    ISSN: 2050-0904
    E-ISSN: 2050-0904
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron Letters, 2000, Vol.41(52), pp.10159-10162
    Description: The lipase TL®-mediated kinetic resolution of (±)-benzoin ( 1 ) proceeded to give the corresponding optically pure benzoin ( R )- 1 . On the other hand, ( S )-benzoin- O -acetate ( 5 ) could be hydrolyzed without epimerization to give ( S )-benzoin ( S )- 1 , under alkaline conditions. Further, ( R )- 1 was converted to (1 R ,2 S )-2-amino-1,2-diphenylethanol (99:1 er) according to the procedure reported previously.
    Keywords: Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    E-ISSN: 1873-3581
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  • 8
    Language: Japanese
    In: 日本臨床細胞学会雑誌, 2014, Vol.53(5), pp.356-361
    Description: 〈b〉目的〈/b〉 : 甲状腺細胞診検査における偽陰性率を低減させることを目的として血中 TSH 値について検討した.〈br〉〈b〉方法〈/b〉 : 甲状腺穿刺細胞診検査が施行され, その後甲状腺切除術および病理組織検査が行われた 276 例を対象として, 術前の血中 TSH 値と病理診断との関係について総計学的に解析した.〈br〉〈b〉成績〈/b〉 : 病理診断が良性の 156 例と悪性の 120 例の間で TSH の平均値に有意差を認めた (p=0.011, t 検定). TSH 1.8μIU/m〈i〉l〈/i〉 以上の 79 例では 1.8 未満の 197 例に比べ有意に悪性が多く (p〈0.001, χ〈sup〉2〈/sup〉検定), オッズ比は 5.06 倍であった. 術前の細胞診検査が陰性であった 170 例においても, TSH 1.8 以上の 30 例では 1.8 未満の 140 例に比べ有意に悪性が多く (p=0.020, χ〈sup〉2〈/sup〉検定), オッズ比は 3.25 倍であった. 細胞診検査が陰性であった 170 例に対して TSH 1.8 以上を悪性の疑いと判定することにより偽陰性例は 19 例から 12 例に減少した.〈br〉〈b〉結論〈/b〉 : 細胞診検査が陰性の症例においても, TSH 1.8 以上は悪性を疑う所見として再検査や外科手術を促すことが細胞診検査の偽陰性率を低下させる有効な手段である.
    Description: 〈b〉〈i〉Objectives〈/i〉〈/b〉 : The serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were investigated in relation to thyroid malignancy, in order to lower the false-negative rate in thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology.〈br〉〈b〉〈i〉Study Design〈/i〉〈/b〉 : The preoperative serum TSH levels of 276 thyroid patients were tested. All patients had fine-needle aspiration cytology, then underwent surgical treatments, the histological diagnoses were confirmed, and the significance of the TSH levels was statistically investigated.〈br〉〈b〉〈i〉Results〈/i〉〈/b〉 : TSH levels were significantly different between benign and malignant thyroid diseases (p=0.011, t test). Thyroid cancers were more frequent in those with TSH levels of more than 1.8μIU/m〈i〉l〈/i〉 compared to those with TSH levels less than 1.8μIU/m〈i〉l〈/i〉 (p〈0.001, χ〈sup〉2〈/sup〉 test). The odds ratio was 5.06. Furthermore, even in 170 patients with a negative diagnosis based on the cytology, thyroid cancers were more frequent also in those with TSH levels of more than 1.8μIU/m〈i〉l〈/i〉 (p=0.020, χ〈sup〉2〈/sup〉 test), and the odds ratio was 3.25. By combining the serum TSH test for 170 patients with negative cytology diagnosis, false-negative cases were reduced to 12 cases from 19 cases.〈br〉〈b〉〈i〉Conclusion〈/i〉〈/b〉 : Even if the result of cytology examinations are negative, patients with TSH levels of more than 1.8μIU/m〈i〉l〈/i〉 have a higher risk of malignancy, and should be further examined or surgically treated. This may result in fewer false-negative cases in thyroid cytology.
    Keywords: Thyroid Cancer ; Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (Fna) ; Tsh ; False-Negative
    ISSN: 0387-1193
    E-ISSN: 18827233
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Bulletin of Shubun University, 2016, Issue 8, pp.1-9
    Description: [Abstract] Objectives : Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (TG) were investigated in relation to thyroid malignancy to confirm the significance of both markers for cancer diagnosis, and also to decrease the false-negative rate in thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. Methods : Preoperative serum levels of TSH and TG from 597 thyroid patients were statistically investigated. All patients had fine-needle aspiration cytology, then underwent surgical treatments, and their histological diagnoses were confirmed. The statistical significance of the TSH and TG levels was investigated. Results : TSH was significantly higher in cancer patients (P1.80 μIU/ml (P180 ng/ml (P1.80 μIU/ml have a higher risk of papillary carcinoma, and patients with TG〉180 ng/ml have a higher risk of follicular carcinoma. Even in patients with benign or inadequate results from FNA examinations, those with TSH〉1.80 μIU/ml have a higher risk of malignancy. Such patients should be further examined by repeat cytology or treated surgically to determine whether the lesion is malignant or not.
    ISSN: 1884-9806
    Source: Medical*Online (Meteo, Inc.)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: International Urogynecology Journal, 2014, Vol.25(9), pp.1179-1184
    Description: Byline: Linda Brubaker (1), Charles W. Nager (2), Holly E. Richter (3), Anthony Visco (4), Ingrid Nygaard (5), Matthew D. Barber (6), Joseph Schaffer (7), Susan Meikle (8), Dennis Wallace (9), Noriko Shibata (10), Alan J. Wolfe (10) Keywords: Microbiome; Urinary bacteria; Urinary urgency incontinence; Urinary tract infection Abstract: Introduction and hypothesis This study's aims were to detect and quantify bacterial DNA in the urine of randomized trial participants about to undergo treatment for urinary urgency incontinence (UUI) without clinical evidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) and to determine if the presence of bacterial DNA in baseline urine relates to either baseline urinary symptoms or UTI risk after urinary tract instrumentation. Methods Women without clinical evidence of baseline UTI were randomized to cystoscopic onabotulinum toxin A injection and oral placebo medication versus cystoscopic placebo injection and active oral medication. Bacterial DNA in participants' catheterized urine was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Bacterial DNA was detected in the urine of 38.7 % of participants (60 out of 155). In these 60 qPCR-positive participants, baseline daily UUI episodes were greater than in the 95 qPCR-negative participants (5.71 [[+ or -]2.60] vs 4.72 [[+ or -]2.86], p=0.004). Neither symptom severity by questionnaire nor treatment outcome was associated with qPCR status or with qPCR level in qPCR-positive subjects. In contrast, the presence of urinary bacterial DNA was associated with UTI risk: only 10 % of the qPCR-positive women developed a UTI post-treatment, while 24 % of the qPCR-negative women did so. The median qPCR level for qPCR-positive samples did not differ significantly by UTI status (UTI 2.58x10.sup.5 vs no UTI 1.35x10.sup.5 copies/mL, p=0.6). Conclusions These results may indicate a urinary bacterial contribution to both baseline UUI and the risk of post-treatment UTI. Author Affiliation: (1) Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Urology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, 2160 S. First Avenue, Boulevard 120, Room 420, Maywood, IL, 60153, USA (2) Department of Reproductive Medicine, UC San Diego Health System, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA (3) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA (4) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA (5) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA (6) Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA (7) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA (8) Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch, The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA (9) Health Sciences Division, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA (10) Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA Article History: Registration Date: 29/12/2013 Received Date: 10/10/2013 Accepted Date: 28/12/2013 Online Date: 11/02/2014 Article note: The ABC trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01166438.
    Keywords: Microbiome ; Urinary bacteria ; Urinary urgency incontinence ; Urinary tract infection
    ISSN: 0937-3462
    E-ISSN: 1433-3023
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