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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, Nov, 2012, Vol.123, p.72(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.06.082 Byline: Honglei Zhang, Jincheng Ding, Zengdian Zhao Keywords: Biodiesel; Cation ion-exchange resin; Hybrid catalytic membrane; Esterification; Microwave irradiation Abstract: Compared with traditional heating esterification (THE), microwave assisted esterification (MAE) needs less reaction time, lower reaction temperature, less energy and lower methanol additive. Thus, manufacturing biodiesel using microwave represents a fast, easy and effective route with advantages of a short reaction time, a low methanol/acidified oil mass ratio, an ease of operation, reduced energy consumption and all with lower production cost. Display Omitted Author Affiliation: School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, PR China Article History: Received 21 March 2012; Revised 23 June 2012; Accepted 25 June 2012
    Keywords: Esterification ; Energy Conservation ; Biodiesel Fuels ; Manufacturing Costs
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, May, 2012, Vol.112, p.28(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.02.104 Byline: Honglei Zhang (a), Jincheng Ding (a), Yanli Qiu (b), Zengdian Zhao (a) Keywords: Biodiesel; Cation ion-exchange resin; Hybrid catalytic membrane; Esterification; Kinetic model Abstract: a* We prepared CERP/PES hybrid catalytic membrane for biodiesel production. a* We conducted esterification of acidic oil with different alcohols by the membrane. a* We studied kinetic models of the esterification of acidic oil with the alcohols. a* Butanol has the highest FFAs conversion among the four alcohols. a* The proposed kinetic model can well predict FFAs conversion. Author Affiliation: (a) School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, PR China (b) Graduate School, Dongbei University of Finance & Economics, Dalian 116025, PR China Article History: Received 21 October 2011; Revised 9 February 2012; Accepted 21 February 2012
    Keywords: Esterification -- Analysis ; Gums And Resins Industry -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Tourism Management, December 2012, Vol.33(6), pp.1398-1407
    Description: The study of constraints in the leisure and tourism context has been a growing research theme during the past four decades. This article focused on participants' constraints that inhibit an experience of Chinese calligraphic landscapes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether three types of constraints existed in the context of a calligraphic landscape experience. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the fitness of the collected data for the hierarchical constraints model. This study also extended this hierarchical model to prove that some constraint dimensions do influence tourists' preference, participation and satisfaction. This research concluded that intrapersonal constraints had a negative influence on preference, while neither interpersonal nor structural dimension influenced tourists' participation or satisfaction. ► Our study focuses on the special culture landscape: Chinese calligraphic landscape. ► Constraints to calligraphic landscape experience is defined. ► We developed a measurement scale of constraints in such context. ► The hierarchical structure of constraints is confirmed in such context. ► Constraints do not all affect preference, participation and satisfaction.
    Keywords: Calligraphic Landscape ; Constraints ; Preference ; Participation ; Satisfaction ; Geography ; Business
    ISSN: 0261-5177
    E-ISSN: 1879-3193
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 22 February 2011, Vol.108(8), pp.3436-41
    Description: In living organisms sugars not only provide energy and carbon skeletons but also act as evolutionarily conserved signaling molecules. The three major soluble sugars in plants are sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Information on plant glucose and sucrose signaling is available, but to date no fructose-specific signaling pathway has been reported. In this study, sugar repression of seedling development was used to study fructose sensitivity in the Landsberg erecta (Ler)/Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) recombinant inbred line population, and eight fructose-sensing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) (FSQ1-8) were mapped. Among them, FSQ6 was confirmed to be a fructose-specific QTL by analyzing near-isogenic lines in which Cvi genomic fragments were introgressed in the Ler background. These results indicate the existence of a fructose-specific signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. Further analysis demonstrated that the FSQ6-associated fructose-signaling pathway functions independently of the hexokinase1 (HXK1) glucose sensor. Remarkably, fructose-specific FSQ6 downstream signaling interacts with abscisic acid (ABA)- and ethylene-signaling pathways, similar to HXK1-dependent glucose signaling. The Cvi allele of FSQ6 acts as a suppressor of fructose signaling. The FSQ6 gene was identified using map-based cloning approach, and FSQ6 was shown to encode the transcription factor gene Arabidopsis NAC (petunia No apical meristem and Arabidopsis transcription activation factor 1, 2 and Cup-shaped cotyledon 2) domain containing protein 89 (ANAC089). The Cvi allele of FSQ6/ANAC089 is a gain-of-function allele caused by a premature stop in the third exon of the gene. The truncated Cvi FSQ6/ANAC089 protein lacks a membrane association domain that is present in ANAC089 proteins from other Arabidopsis accessions. As a result, Cvi FSQ6/ANAC089 is constitutively active as a transcription factor in the nucleus.
    Keywords: Signal Transduction ; Arabidopsis -- Metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins -- Physiology ; Fructose -- Metabolism ; Transcription Factors -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Tourism Management, June 2016, Vol.54, pp.452-464
    Description: Laden with assorted emotional factors, dark tourism behaviors are heavily influenced by emotion-related factors, such as intrapersonal constraints. By deploying a survey of tourists visiting the Memorial of the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre, which lies on the darkest edges of the dark tourism spectrum, this study probes how well one's intrapersonal constraints and past experiences relate to one's revisit intention. Results indicate that there are four sub-dimensions in intrapersonal constraints, namely culture, emotion, escape, and incuriousness. The cognitive experiences have significantly positive effects on the revisit intention either through direct effects or via the mediating variables of intrapersonal constraints, while intrapersonal constraints play an indirect-only mediating role in the relationship between affective experiences and revisit intentions. Theoretical and practical contributions of the study findings are discussed within the realm of dark tourism.
    Keywords: Dark Tourism ; Past Experience ; Intrapersonal Constraints ; Revisit Intention ; Geography ; Business
    ISSN: 0261-5177
    E-ISSN: 1879-3193
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 05 March 2016, Vol.492, pp.119-126
    Description: A electrostatic thin film of an europium-substituted tungstoborate anion with a dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex cation is prepared layer-by-layer as evidenced by ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy. The surface confined good redox behaviors of the cation and anion in the films were observed. The films showed stable and large cathodic photocurrent with a maximum photocurrent density of 2.66 μA cm was achieved for 4 layer film at an applied potential of −0.3 V versus SCE, which is 2.28 folds as great as that of similar film with an inert polymer layer instead of the anion layer. A new electrostatically self-assembled hybrid film consisting of alternating layers of europium-substituted tungstoborate anion of [Eu(BW O ) ] (EuBW) and dinuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex cation of [(bpy) Ru(BPBH)Ru(bpy) ] {in which bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine and BPBH = 1,6-bis-(2-(2-phenyl)benzimidazoyl)hexane, RuBPBH} was successfully prepared. UV–vis absorption spectroscopy provided the evidences for the layer-by-layer deposition of EuBW anion and RuBPBH cation on quartz substrate. The (EuBW/RuBPBH) films showed stable electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties with a photocurrent density of 2.66 μA/cm being found for a 4-layer film of (EuBW/RuBPBH) , while irradiated with polychromatic light (325 nm 〈 〈 730 nm) at an applied potential of −0.3 V versus saturated calomel electrode. The enhanced photocurrent generation by presence of the EuBW layer in this hybrid film has also been demonstrated as compared to the (PSS- -MS/RuBPBH) film by using a photoelectrochemical inactive polyanion of PSS- -MS instead of the EuBW anion.
    Keywords: Thin Film ; Ruthenium ; Polyoxometalate ; Photoelectrochemical Property ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0927-7757
    E-ISSN: 1873-4359
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, July 2018, Vol.259, pp.61-66
    Description: This work investigated the changes in the physical structure of autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood chips and the effect on the subsequent alkali liquor diffusion properties for chemi-mechanical pulping (CMP). An alkali impregnation process was conducted by using the autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood with different levels of autohydrolysis intensity. The results showed that the volume porosity, water constraint capacity, and saturated water absorption of the autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood chips increased. Also, the effective capillary cross-sectional area (ECCSA) in the radial direction and the diffusion coefficients of NaOH solution in both the radial and axial directions all increased. Autohydrolysis pretreatment enhanced the alkali liquor diffusion properties in poplar sapwood chips, and the diffusion coefficient was increased more greatly in the radial direction than that in the axial direction.
    Keywords: Poplar Sapwood Chips ; Autohydrolysis ; Diffusion Coefficient ; Effective Capillary Cross-Sectional Area (Eccsa) ; Pore Size Distribution ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource technology, 2012, Vol.123, pp.72-77
    Description: The traditional heating and microwave assisted method for biodiesel production using cation ion-exchange resin particles (CERP)/PES catalytic membrane were comparatively studied to achieve economic and effective method for utilization of free fatty acids (FFAs) from waste cooking oil (WCO). The optimal esterification conditions of the two methods were investigated and the experimental results showed that microwave irradiation exhibited a remarkable enhanced effect for esterification compared with that of traditional heating method. The FFAs conversion of microwave assisted esterification reached 97.4% under the optimal conditions of reaction temperature 60°C, methanol/acidified oil mass ratio 2.0:1, catalytic membrane (annealed at 120°C) loading 3g, microwave power 360W and reaction time 90min. The study results showed that it is a fast, easy and green way to produce biodiesel applying microwave irradiation. ; p. 72-77.
    Keywords: Irradiation ; Cooking Fats And Oils ; Resins ; Esterification ; Methanol ; Temperature ; Free Fatty Acids ; Microwave Treatment ; Biodiesel ; Cations ; Economics ; Ion Exchange ; Annealing
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, November 2012, Vol.123, pp.72-77
    Description: Compared with traditional heating esterification (THE), microwave assisted esterification (MAE) needs less reaction time, lower reaction temperature, less energy and lower methanol additive. Thus, manufacturing biodiesel using microwave represents a fast, easy and effective route with advantages of a short reaction time, a low methanol/acidified oil mass ratio, an ease of operation, reduced energy consumption and all with lower production cost. ► We prepared CERP/PES hybrid catalytic membrane for biodiesel production. ► We conducted esterification of acidified oil under traditional heating method. ► We conducted esterification of acidified oil under microwave irradiation. ► Biodiesel production with microwave irradiation needs less time and catalyst. ► Esterification with microwave irradiation offers a fast, easy and effective route. The traditional heating and microwave assisted method for biodiesel production using cation ion-exchange resin particles (CERP)/PES catalytic membrane were comparatively studied to achieve economic and effective method for utilization of free fatty acids (FFAs) from waste cooking oil (WCO). The optimal esterification conditions of the two methods were investigated and the experimental results showed that microwave irradiation exhibited a remarkable enhanced effect for esterification compared with that of traditional heating method. The FFAs conversion of microwave assisted esterification reached 97.4% under the optimal conditions of reaction temperature 60 °C, methanol/acidified oil mass ratio 2.0:1, catalytic membrane (annealed at 120 °C) loading 3 g, microwave power 360 W and reaction time 90 min. The study results showed that it is a fast, easy and green way to produce biodiesel applying microwave irradiation.
    Keywords: Biodiesel ; Cation Ion-Exchange Resin ; Hybrid Catalytic Membrane ; Esterification ; Microwave Irradiation ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 11/27/2013, Vol.52(47), pp.16902-16910
    Description: Magnetic microspheres with an Fe sub(3)O sub(4) core and a SiO sub(2)-TiO sub(2) hybrid shell were prepared by a surfactant-assisted aerosol process and subsequent etching treatment. The core-shell spheres with robust and chemically stable Ti-O-Si shells exhibit excellent adsorption performance toward basic dyes. The maximum adsorption capacities were obtained at 147 mg/g for methylene blue (MB) and 124.6 mg/g for basic fuchsin. MB with an initial concentration of 20 mg/L can be completely removed in 5 min at a dosage of 0.5 mg/L, and the equilibrium time is 90 min in the MB concentration range 20-250 mg/L. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, the dye saturated microspheres can be easily recycled by an external magnetic field and regenerated using 1-3 wt % NaOH aqueous solution. After six recycle runs, 98% of the adsorption capacity was still retained. The low-cost magnetic hollow spheres with good adsorption capacity are a promising candidate for water treatment.
    Keywords: Magnetic Fields ; Aerosols ; Dyes ; Basic Dyes ; Recycled ; Adsorption ; Microspheres ; Silicon Dioxide ; Analysis (MD) ; Chemical Analysis (Ep) ; Chemical Analysis (Ed) ; Chemical Analysis (EC) ; Surveying, Theory, and Analysis (CE);
    ISSN: 0888-5885
    E-ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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