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  • Persian  (29)
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  • 1
    Language: Persian
    In: Faṣlnāmah-i Pizhūhish-i Huqūq-i Kiyfarī, 01 October 2017, Vol.6(20), pp.141-172
    Description: It is not deniable that explicit reflection of the legal persons' criminal liability including corporations, regarding the general crimes, explanation of criteria for assuming such liabilities and providing various executive warranties along with the Islamic Penal Code is a turning point in the Iranian criminal law development. However, there are some questions concerning the corporations' criminal liability under specific situations which must be answered by the lawmaker. The first question is that, whether this liability is exerted from registration date and the related arrangement or it is retrospective. The second question is that, what are the effects of breakup on a corporate liability? Is it regarded as the death of real persons which causes the extinction of criminal liability of legal persons during settlement? The third question is "what are the effects of merger and its various types (unilateral, bilateral or multi-lateral merger) on merging company's criminal liability, with regard to the scopes of special laws as well as the Fourth and Fifth Development Plan of the country, and the Trade Bill?
    Keywords: Criminal Liability; Corporations on the Eve of Establishment; Settling Corporations; Unilateral Merger; Bilateral or Multi-Lateral Merger
    ISSN: 2345-3575
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Hydrogeology Journal, 2018, Vol.26(8), pp.2827-2851
    Description: An accurate estimate of the groundwater inflow to a tunnel is one of the most challenging but essential tasks in tunnel design and construction. Most of the numerical or analytical solutions that have been developed ignore tunnel seepage conditions, material properties and hydraulic-head changes along the tunnel route during the excavation process, leading to inaccurate prediction of inflow rates. A method is introduced that uses MODFLOW code of GMS software to predict inflow rate as the tunnel boring machine (TBM) gradually advances. In this method, the tunnel boundary condition is conceptualized and defined using Drain package, which is simulated by dividing the drilling process into a series of successive intervals based on the tunnel excavation rates. In addition, the drain elevations are specified as the respective tunnel elevations, and the conductance parameters are assigned to intervals, depending on the TBM type and the tunnel seepage condition. The Qomroud water conveyance tunnel, located in Lorestan province of Iran, is 36 km in length. Since the Qomroud tunnel involved groundwater inrush during excavating, it is considered as a good case study to evaluate the presented method. The groundwater inflow to this tunnel during the TBM advance is simulated using the proposed method and the predicted rates are compared with observed rates. The results show that the presented method can satisfactorily predict the inflow rates as the TBM advances. Une évaluation précise de l’apport d’eaux souterraines à un tunnel est. l’une des tâches les plus difficiles mais essentielles dans la conception et la construction de tunnels. La plupart des solutions numériques ou analytiques qui ont été développées ignorent les conditions d’infiltration dans le tunnel, les propriétés des matériaux et les variations de charge hydraulique le long de l’itinéraire du tunnel au cours de l’excavation, menant à la prévision imprécise des apports d’eau. On présente une méthode qui emploie le code MODFLOW du logiciel GMS pour prévoir les débits d’entrée d’eau pendant que le tunnelier (TBM) avance graduellement. Dans cette méthode, les conditions aux limites du tunnel sont conceptualisées et définies en utilisant le module Drain, qui est. simulé en divisant le processus de forage en une série d’intervalles successifs basés sur l’avancement de l’excavation de tunnel. En outre, les altitudes de drain sont indiquées comme les altitudes respectives du tunnel, et les paramètres de conductance sont assignés aux intervalles, selon le type de TBM et les conditions d’infiltration dans le tunnel. Le tunnel de transport d’eau de Qomroud, situé dans la province de Lorestan en Iran, est. de 36 km de longueur. Puisque le tunnel de Qomroud a été concerné par l’irruption d’eaux souterraines pendant l’excavation, il est. considéré comme un bon cas d’étude pour évaluer la méthode présentée. L’apport d’eaux souterraines à ce tunnel pendant l’avancement du tunnelier est. simulé en utilisant la méthode proposée et les débits prévus sont comparés aux débits observés. Les résultats prouvent que la méthode présentée peut d’une manière satisfaisante prévoir les débits des venues d’eau au cours de l’avancement du tunnelier. Una estimación precisa de la entrada de agua subterránea a un túnel es una de las tareas más desafiantes pero esenciales en el diseño y la construcción de un túnel. La mayoría de las soluciones numéricas o analíticas que se han desarrollado ignoran las condiciones de filtración del túnel, las propiedades del material y los cambios de la carga hidráulica a lo largo de la trayectoria del túnel durante el proceso de excavación, lo que conduce a una predicción incorrecta de las velocidades de entrada. Se introduce un método que utiliza el código MODFLOW del software GMS para predecir la velocidad de entrada a medida que avanza gradualmente la tuneladora (TBM). En este método, la condición de límite del túnel se conceptualiza y se define mediante el paquete Drenaje, que se simula dividiendo el proceso de perforación en una serie de intervalos sucesivos según las tasas de excavación del túnel. Además, las alturas del drenaje se especifican como las respectivas alturas del túnel, y los parámetros de conductancia se asignan a intervalos, según el tipo de TBM y la condición de filtración del túnel. El túnel de conducción de agua de Qomroud, ubicado en la provincia de Lorestan de Irán, tiene 36 km de longitud. Dado que el túnel de Qomroud involucró la entrada de agua subterránea durante la excavación, se considera un buen caso de estudio para evaluar el método presentado. El flujo de agua subterránea a este túnel durante el avance de TBM se simula utilizando el método propuesto y las tasas pronosticadas se comparan con las tasas observadas. Los resultados muestran que el método presentado puede predecir satisfactoriamente las tasas de entrada a medida que avanza la TBM. 隧道设计和建设中准确估算地下水流入隧道的水量是最具挑战的、但最重要的任务之一。过去开发出来的大多数数值方法或者解析方法忽略了开挖过程中隧道渗漏条件、物质特性和沿隧道路线的水头变化,导致预测水的流入量不准确。这里介绍了一种采用GMS软件MODFLOW编码预测隧道掘进机逐渐前进时水的流入量。在这种方法中,采用Drain软件包概念化和确定隧道边界条件,根据隧道掘进速度通过把钻进过程分为一系列连续的间隔对隧道边界条件进行模拟。此外,排水高程定位各自的隧道高程,电导参数分配到间隔中,这取决于隧道掘进机的类型以及隧道渗漏状况。位于伊朗Lorestan省的Qomroud输水隧道有36 km长。因为Qomroud输水隧道掘进期间出现地下水流入,所以此隧道被认为是评估提出的方法的很好的研究案例。采用该方法模拟了隧道掘进机前进期间地下水的流入隧道的水量,预测的流入量与观测的流入量进行了比较。结果显示,所展示的方法可以圆满地预测隧道掘进机前进时的水流入量。. تخمین دقیق آب ورودی به تونل یکی از چالش برانگیزترین وظایف لازم در مرحله طراحی و ساخت تونل به شمار می‌رود. بیش‌تر راه‌حل‌های تحلیلی و عددی که در این زمینه توسعه یافته‌اند، تغییرات شرایط نشت آب به تونل، ویژگی‌های مصالح زمین‌شناسی و بار هیدرولیکی را در طول حفاری تونل نادیده می‌گیرند که منجر به پیش‌بینی‌ نادرست نرخ‌ آب ورودی به تونل می‌شود. روشی که در این پژوهش ارائه می‌شود با استفاده از کد MODFLOW نرم‌افزار GMS نرخ آب ورودی به تونل را به طور گام به گام در هنگام پیشروی حفاری دستگاه TBM پیش‌بینی می‌نماید. در این روش، شرایط مرزی تونل با استفاده از بسته زهکش بدین صورت مفهوم‌سازی و تعریف می‌شود که در آن مسیر تونل به قسمت‌هایی پیاپی مطابق با نرخ‌ حفاری تقسیم می‌شود. علاوه‌بر آن، تراز ارتفاعی زهکش معادل با تراز ارتفاعی تونل و مقدار قابلیت هدایت برای هر قسمت با توجه به نوع دستگاه TBM و شرایط نشت آب به تونل، تعیین می‌شود. تونل انتقال آب قمرود به طول 36 کیلومتر در استان لرستان کشور ایران واقع شده است. با توجه به این که تونل قمرود در هنگام حفاری با مشکلات هجوم آب گریبان‌گیر بوده است، از اینرو به عنوان مطالعه موردی مناسب برای این پژوهش در نظر گرفته شده است. بدین ترتیب نخست آب ورودی به تونل قمرود به ازای پیشروی حفاری دستگاه TBM با استفاده از روش پیشنهادی در این پژوهش برآورد شده و در نهایت مقادیر برآوردی با مشاهداتی مورد مقایسه قرار گرفته است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که روش ارائه شده می‌تواند به طور رضایت‌بخشی نرخ آب ورودی به تونل را به ازای پیشروی حفاری دستگاه TBM پیش‌بینی نماید.
    Keywords: Numerical modeling ; Groundwater flow ; Mechanized tunneling ; MODFLOW ; Iran
    ISSN: 1431-2174
    E-ISSN: 1435-0157
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  • 3
    Language: Persian
    In: Signal and Data Processing, 6/01/2018, Vol.15(1), pp.71-86
    ISSN: 2538-4201
    E-ISSN: 2538-421X
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    Language: Persian
    In: مجله دانشکده پزشکی اصفهان, 01 March 2012, Vol.29(171)
    Description: Background: Massage therapy is one of the methods used to improve and prevent sports injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an athletic massage after acute eccentric exercise on physical performance and perceived recovery in male body building athletes. Methods: Thirty male body building athletes were selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental (n = 15) and control (n = 15). They performed 5 sets of ten maximal eccentric contractions at a level of 80 ± 5% of a one-repetition maximal contraction of the knee flexors and extensors at maximal angular velocity. The experimental group received athletic massage using massage techniques for 30 minutes immediately after exercise, whereas the control group was instructed to maintain their current lifestyle. Physical performance and perceived recovery were assessed using the Sargent jump test and perceived recovery questionnaire before and immediately after exercise, and at 2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after exercise. The obtained data was analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA).. Findings: : Significant reductions in physical performance as well as significant increments in muscle soreness were observed in both groups after acute exercise. However, the results showed significant improvements in physical performance and perceived recovery in the experimental group compared with the control group 24 hours after massage therapy (P 〈 0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that a massage therapy session may improve the physical performance and perceived recovery following acute eccentric exercise in male body building athletes. However, it may not be beneficial in the treatment of strength and functional declines.
    Keywords: Massage Therapy ; Physical Performance ; Perceived Recovery ; Body Building Athletes ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1027-7595
    E-ISSN: 1735-854X
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 5
    Language: Persian
    In: Āfāq-i Dīn, 01 July 2017, Vol.8(29), pp.117-141
    Description: Quranic research has been a top priority for the Orientalists in recent centuries. Some of these works affirm the denial or, at least, skepticism in the Quranic revelation. William Joseph Federer, the contemporary American author and historian, also agrees with this view, denies the divinity of the Quran. The present study, using a descriptive-analytic method, discusses the various aspects of Federer’s claim. This study examines William Federer’s view in his book entitled “What every American needs to know about the Quran” discussing the sources of Quran. The result of the present study shows the inaccuracy of many of Federer’s claims. His most important weaknesses are having no reference to first-hand and authoritative sources, inaccurate addressing to sources, having no reference to Shia’s historical, exegetical and hadith sources, the bias towards Christian beliefs, and prejudice against the Quranic teachings. The result of this research has implications for orientalism studies, and also for theological and exegetical discussions. These results are also effective in the field of advertising and attracting non-Muslims and satisfying their intellectuals.
    Keywords: The Sources of the Quran; Revelation; William Federer; Jahillya Culture; Abrahamic Religions
    ISSN: 2008-9252
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 6
    Language: Persian
    In: مجله دانشکده پزشکی اصفهان, 01 March 2012, Vol.29(174)
    Description: Background: Since muscle force depends on various factors, presenting explicit equations for predicting it is difficult. Due to the importance of these equations in different musculoskeletal problems and analysis of motion, proposing solutions for estimating muscle force is indisputable. Although numerous relations have been suggested, the complexity of relations between the caused musculotendon force and the effective factors leads to a lot of problems in suggesting efficient comprehensive computational equations. Thus, the previous proposed relations either do not have universality for estimating muscle force, or are too nonlinear, massive and inefficient. Methods: In this study, after reviewing previous mathematical relations for predicting muscle force, an artificial neural network was implemented to predict force in musculotendon actuators. Findings: The present study provided an appropriate and computationally efficient mathematical model with limited parameters. The model can be used to determine the forces generated by musculotendon actuators in various lengths and contraction velocities. Conclusion: Utilizing a neural network lets us estimate muscle force quicker and more accurately. This could fundamentally increase the computational efficiency in different musculoskeletal problems.
    Keywords: Artificial Neural Network ; Mathematical Modeling ; Musculotendon Actuator Muscle Model ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1027-7595
    E-ISSN: 1735-854X
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 7
    Language: Persian
    In: Audiology, 01 December 2014, Vol.23(5), pp.52-59
    Description: Background and Aim: Grammatical skills development of hearing-impaired children depends on using appropriate educational rehabilitation programs. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of linguistic plays on the grammatical skills in hearing-impaired children with hearing aids.Methods: Ten hearing-impaired children with hearing aids, aged between 5 and 7, were randomly assigned to two groups (5 children in each group). Each treatment group received 12 sessions on linguistic plays. The grammatical skills of these children were evaluated via the TOLD-P: 3 (Persian version); in addition, their level of intelligence was assessed by the Raven test.Results: The difference between the scores of both control and treatment groups revealed a statistically significant difference in grammatical skills (t=7.61, p=0.001) and three subskills of the children who participated in the linguistic plays. These subskills include syntactic understanding (t=3.16, p=0.013), sentence imitation (t=1.71, p=0.006), and morphological completion (t=6.55, p=0.001). In other words, the findings suggest that linguistic plays have a significant impact on the improvement of the aforementioned skills in hearing-impaired children.Conclusion: Results suggest that it would be beneficial to include linguistic plays as part of routine rehabilitation programs as a means of improving the grammatical difficulties of children. After partaking in linguistic plays, children significantly improved their ability to comprehend the meaning of sentences and also to recognize, understand, and use common Persian morphological forms.
    Keywords: Linguistic Plays ; Grammatical Skills ; Hearing-Impaired Children With Hearing Aids ; Test of Language Development (Told P: 3) ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1735-1936
    E-ISSN: 2008-2657
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 8
    Language: Persian
    In: مجله دانشکده پزشکی اصفهان, 01 October 2018, Vol.36(490), pp.897-901
    Description: Background: Ovarian pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, and usually is diagnosed after complication. The most common risk factor for ovarian pregnancy is the use of the intrauterine devices (IUD). Case Report: Our patient was a 20-year-old woman with a history of salpingectomy, gravid 2, with one previous ectopic pregnancy presented with abdominal pain for one week, nausea, vomiting, and orthostatic hypotension. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) was positive with a titer of 105000 mIU/ml. Sonography showed a uterus of normal size with no gestational sac, but an echogenic mass with size of 44 × 32 mm at the right adnexa, and with free fluid in abdomen was detected, ectopic pregnancy was suggested, and laparotomy was performed. Conclusion: In women that present with history of menstrual retard, abdominal pain, and spotting, ectopic pregnancy is the first differential diagnosis. Patient should be evaluated by checking βhCG and sonography, and be treated based on clinical examination and paraclinical evidence.
    Keywords: Ectopic Pregnancy ; Ovarian Pregnancy ; Laparotomy ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1027-7595
    E-ISSN: 1735-854X
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 9
    Language: Persian
    In: Audiology, 01 August 2014, Vol.23(3), pp.46-56
    Description: Background and Aim: Auditory and visual processing along with phonological and visual spatial working memory are the problems that patients with dyslexia struggle with. So, the aim of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training on the working memory performance of children with dyslexia.Methods: The study conducted under the quasi-experimental method with pre- and post-test along with the control group. 25 children with dyslexia aged 7 to 12 years in grades 1-5 assigned to the experimental (15) and control (10) groups; the experimental group received 30 sessions of the Brain Ware Safari intervention program. NAMA scale and Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C) were conducted to assess reading and working memory performance of the subjects. MANCOVA, ANCOVA and effect sizes were utilized to analyze the data.Results: There were significant differences between pre- and post-tests of the experimental and control groups on the forward and backward block recall subtests of WMTB-C and not the mazes memory. Regarding the subscales of NAMA scale, we found no significant differences in the reading performance; but analysis of effect sizes showed positive effects at least on the 6 subscales.Conclusion: The Brain Ware Safari computerized cognitive training can improve visual spatial working memory of children with dyslexia and probably may affect the reading performance.
    Keywords: Cognitive Training ; Working Memory ; Learning Disorder ; Dyslexia ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1735-1936
    E-ISSN: 2008-2657
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 10
    Language: Persian
    In: Audiology, 01 March 2012, Vol.21(1), pp.83-93
    Description: Background: Phonemic awareness is one of the most important predictors of reading skills that has been taught by different procedures. One of the procedures is implementation of direct instruction in instruction of phonemic awareness. Current study is one of the unique studies in Iran that investigate impact of direct instruction in phonemic awareness on reading achievement of students with reading disorder.Case: Three male second grade elementary students with reading disorder in a regular school in district six of the office of education in Tehran were selected. Multiple-baseline across subjects was selected as a research design. The following tests were used as diagnostic criteria: reading and dyslexia test and Wechsler intelligence scale for children-revised. Moreover, a reading inventory consisting of 100 words was developed by researchers to assess the reading ability of the subjects. Data were collected in three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. During the intervention phase, the intervention strategies were used while during baseline and follow-up, data were collected without any intervention. Comparing three phases of the study, we may conclude that intervention package consisting of direct instruction of phonological awareness was an effective strategy in reading achievement of all three students. In addition, follow-up data indicated that the effects of the intervention procedures were stable across time.Conclusion: Direct instruction of phonological awareness was effective in reading achievement of students with reading disorder in elementary school and increasing their abilities in reading.
    Keywords: Reading Disability ; Phonemic Awareness ; Reading Achievement ; Single Subject Research Design ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1735-1936
    E-ISSN: 2008-2657
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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