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  • 1
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Porous Media: Benchmarks and Examples, pp.149-160
    Description: The subject of this chapter is the movement of gases in porous media. In contrast to groundwater hydraulics, gas flow is more complicated because of its compressibility. Significant variations in gas density and viscosity can result also from temperature fluctuations (so-called Klinkenberg effect). According to the kinetic theory of gases, its viscosity should not depend on pressure. This is not necessarily the case for conditions typically existing in natural gas reservoirs [121]. At a fixed temperature, the viscosity of gas can vary by tens of percents as the formation pressure changes by a few Mega Pascale. Another problem concerns the evidence of turbulent flow, which results in additional friction effects.
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Math Applications in Computer Science ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Geoengineering, Foundations, Hydraulics ; Computational Mathematics and Numerical Analysis ; Numerical and Computational Physics ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642271762
    ISBN: 3642271766
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 2
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Porous Media: Benchmarks and Examples, pp.89-105
    Description: In the first benchmark chapter we consider heat transport in a porous medium described by the heat balance equation (2.78).
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Math Applications in Computer Science ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Geoengineering, Foundations, Hydraulics ; Computational Mathematics and Numerical Analysis ; Numerical and Computational Physics ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642271762
    ISBN: 3642271766
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 3
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Porous Media: Benchmarks and Examples, pp.61-85
    Description: The design, implementation and application of the object-oriented programming (OOP) concept in the finite element analysis of multi-field problems is presented in this chapter.
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Math Applications in Computer Science ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Geoengineering, Foundations, Hydraulics ; Computational Mathematics and Numerical Analysis ; Numerical and Computational Physics ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642271762
    ISBN: 3642271766
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 4
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Porous Media: Benchmarks and Examples, pp.9-59
    Description: Concerning the theoretical background of flow, transport, deformation, and reaction processes in porous media, there is a considerable amount of monographic literature available [8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15]. The idea of this chapter is to provide a concise, brief-as-possible description (compendium-like) of governing equations for thermo-hydro-mechanical / chemical [THM/C] processes in porous media. We will point to literature references rather than giving detailed derivations of the governing equations. This part is the theoretical basis for all benchmarks and examples found in Part II and III of this book. We will refer to this part in the examples sections where the working equations are briefly repeated.
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Math Applications in Computer Science ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Geoengineering, Foundations, Hydraulics ; Computational Mathematics and Numerical Analysis ; Numerical and Computational Physics ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642271762
    ISBN: 3642271766
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 5
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Porous Media: Benchmarks and Examples, pp.1-6
    Description: Coupled process modelling has been considered in the various engineering problems and geo-scientific applications since the computation method was introduced for problems of soil consolidation and dam construction, and oil/gas filed exploration in early 1970. However, substantial progress in experimental and theoretical studies regarding the fully coupled effects of temperature, hydraulics and mechanics, as well as chemistry, in fractured porous media was just made in the last two decades due mainly to demands from the performance and safety assessment of high-level nuclear waste repositories. Numerical methods and computer codes have been developed successfully within the international DECOVALEX project (1992–2011). Meanwhile a wider range of applications associated with THMC coupled problems such as geothermal reservoir engineering, CO2-storage, construction of underground opening etc. can be found in the different international conferences, e.g. GeoProc ( www.mech.uwa.edu.au/research/geoproc ), ComGeo ( www.com-geo.org/ ).
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Math Applications in Computer Science ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Geoengineering, Foundations, Hydraulics ; Computational Mathematics and Numerical Analysis ; Numerical and Computational Physics ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642271762
    ISBN: 3642271766
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 6
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Porous Media: Benchmarks and Examples, pp.143-147
    Description: This chapter deals with surface runoff which is flow over the land surface generated by precipitation, melting of snow, or other sources. Typically, not all precipitation or snow produces runoff because storage from soil and plant roots can absorb substantial amounts of water.
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Math Applications in Computer Science ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Geoengineering, Foundations, Hydraulics ; Computational Mathematics and Numerical Analysis ; Numerical and Computational Physics ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642271762
    ISBN: 3642271766
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 7
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Porous Media: Benchmarks and Examples, pp.107-123
    Description: The aim of this example is to simulate the stationary groundwater flow in an anisotropic porous medium. In order to consider the permeability anisotropy, a 2-D numerical model is built which contains a higher permeability in the vertical direction than that in the horizontal direction. The aquifer is assumed saturated and stationary.
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Math Applications in Computer Science ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Geoengineering, Foundations, Hydraulics ; Computational Mathematics and Numerical Analysis ; Numerical and Computational Physics ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642271762
    ISBN: 3642271766
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 8
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Porous Media: Benchmarks and Examples, pp.247-268
    Description: In this chapter, we consider two-phase flow processes and examine two alternate combinations of primary variables in the solution of the governing equations: (1) pressure-pressure and (2) pressure-saturation. These combinations are explained in the following sections.
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Math Applications in Computer Science ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Geoengineering, Foundations, Hydraulics ; Computational Mathematics and Numerical Analysis ; Numerical and Computational Physics ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642271762
    ISBN: 3642271766
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 9
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Porous Media: Benchmarks and Examples, pp.269-298
    Description: The purpose of the benchmarks in this chapter is to test the validity of coupled hydro-mechanical (HM) and two-phase hydro-mechanical (H2M) processes. Mechanical compression generates a fluid pressure response, while pressure storage and dissipation modify the mechanical condition via the effective stress. The tests we use are convenient and fundamental validations of the deformation and flow modules, most importantly guaranteeing that the coupling is correct between them.
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Math Applications in Computer Science ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Geoengineering, Foundations, Hydraulics ; Computational Mathematics and Numerical Analysis ; Numerical and Computational Physics ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642271762
    ISBN: 3642271766
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 10
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Porous Media: Benchmarks and Examples, pp.299-311
    Description: In this chapter, we consider coupled thermo-mechanical (TM) processes in a porous medium. For a heat transport problem in any medium
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Math Applications in Computer Science ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Geoengineering, Foundations, Hydraulics ; Computational Mathematics and Numerical Analysis ; Numerical and Computational Physics ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642271762
    ISBN: 3642271766
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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