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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Developments in Environmental Science, pp.131-149
    Description: Climate change will likely affect the carbon balance of terrestrial soils via shifts in photosynthetic carbon input relative to soil respiratory CO 2 loss. This review is focused on the effects of enhanced temperature and altered precipitation on soil respiration—that is, the sum of autotrophic root and heterotrophic microbial respiration. We highlight key processes that determine the substrate supply for the microbial decomposer community. These processes include (i) root exudation of low-molecular carbon compounds, (ii) enzymatic degradation of labile and recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM) and (iii) physicochemical protection of SOM. The sensitivities of these processes to soil temperature and moisture differ, aggravating mechanistic interpretation of bulk soil respiration in response to global change. Variation in soil respiration can also result from acclimation of autotrophic root respiration, or shifts in microbial carbon use efficiency. On the basis of such key processes, we evaluate the apparent flexibility of instantaneous temperature responses of soil respiration.
    Keywords: Soil respiration ; Temperature ; Arrhenius kinetics ; Q10model ; Carbon use efficiency
    ISBN: 978-0-08-098349-3
    ISSN: 1474-8177
    Source: ScienceDirect (Elsevier B.V.)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.203-215
    Description: Plants interact with sulfur in two different ways. As a macronutrient sulfur is needed for growth and development; at the same time, sulfur is an important substrate and reductant during various forms of stresses mediated by the abiotic environment. The use of sulfur compounds as substrate and/or reductant in compensation reactions of abiotic stresses including oxidative stress, heavy metal and xenobiotic exposure is discussed with special emphasis on the S-containing tri-peptide glutathione (GSH). The examples shown indicate that individual components of S metabolism are involved in different processes of abiotic stress compen‑sation. In the present review the current knowledge of GSH (i) as reductant in the compensation of oxidative stress, (ii) as reductant as well as a substrate in redox reactions, (iii) its direct and indirect involvement in posttranscriptional modification reactions, and (iv) its constitution as a substrate for chelating heavy metals and for conjugation of xenobiotic is discussed. Competition with plant development and growth is also considered.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Trace Gas Emissions by Plants, Chapter 10, pp.217-260
    ISBN: 978-0-12-639010-0
    ISBN: 978-0-12-395902-7
    ISBN: 978-0-323-13810-9
    Source: ScienceDirect (Elsevier B.V.)
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  • 4
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Progress in Botany, Progress in Botany 73, pp.161-188
    Description: A coordinated supply of the whole plant with sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) requires mechanisms to regulate not only uptake and assimilation but also long-distance transport of both nutrients in the phloem and xylem as well as the plant internal cycling of S and N compounds. In trees, plant internal nutrient cycling which includes bidirectional exchange between phloem and xylem allows to partially uncouple nutrient demand from soil supply and needs to be highly coordinated with seasonal storage and remobilisation of S- and N-compounds. In both annual and perennial plants the pools of N and S compounds cycling within the plant provide an integrated signal to adapt the nutrient supply of the plant to the actual demand.This review discusses the transport of N and S compounds in phloem and xylem, illustrates the quantitative importance and the physiological relevance of different N and S compounds transported and focuses on the exchange between the transport systems. Thereby we demonstrate similarities and differences between N and S in assimilation, transport, storage and the underlying regulatory mechanisms.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Botany
    ISBN: 9783642227455
    ISBN: 3642227457
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.237-248
    Description: The effect of long-term exposure to elevated pCO2 concentrations on sulfate and nitrate assimilation was studied under field conditions using leaves from Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens trees growing with ambient or elevated CO2 concentrations in the vicinity of three natural CO2 springs, Bossoleto, Laiatico and Sulfatara, in Tuscany, Italy. The activity of the key enzymes of sulfate assimilation, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase (APR) and nitrate assimilation, nitrate reductase (NR), were measured together with the levels of acid soluble thiols, and soluble non-proteinogenic nitrogen compounds. Whereas NR activity remained unaffected in Q. ilex or increased Q. pubescence, APR activity decreased in the area of CO2 springs. The latter changes were often accompanied by increased GSH concentrations, apparently synthesized from H2S and SO2 present in the gas mixture emitted from the CO2 springs. Thus, the diminished APR activity in leaves of Q. ilex and Q. pubescence from spring areas can best be explained by the exposure to gaseous sulfur compounds. Although the concentrations of H2S and SO2 in the gas mixture emitted from the vents at the CO2 springs were low at the Bossoleto and Laiatico spring, these sulfur gases pose physiological effects, which may override consequences of elevated pCO2.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.255-264
    Description: Drought stress mediated changes in sulfate transport processes, i.e. sulfate uptake and xylem loading of sulfate in the roots, and its dependency on mycorrhization and pCO2 were analyzed in young pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) trees. Withdrawal of water supply caused strong negative values of pre-dawn shoot water potential, indicating severe water stress. Elevated pCO2, but not mycorrhization transiently improved the water status of the trees. Sulfate uptake was largely independent from pre-dawn shoot water potential irrespective of mycorrhization and pCO2. In contrast, xylem loading of sulfate decreased with decreasing shoot water potential. Mycorrhization and – to a lesser extent – also elevated pCO2 improved xylem loading under drought stress. As a consequence, also relative xylem loading, i.e. the % amount of the sulfate taken up that was loaded into the xylem, was slightly improved. The positive effect of mycorrhization on xylem loading of sulfate under drought stress is surprising, since plants were inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata that is not supposed to enter the vascular bundle of the root. Therefore, signaling by the fungus across the bundle sheath has to be assumed.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 7
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Cambridge University Press
    Language: English
    In: Amino Acids and their Derivatives in Higher Plants
    Description: IntroductionA major part of our present knowledge on the processes involved in glutathione metabolism originates from research performed by animal and human biochemists and physiologists up to the late 1970s (Meister, 1981; Meister & Anderson, 1983). Until that time interest of plant biochemists...
    Keywords: Botany
    ISBN: 9780521454537
    ISBN: 9780521050517
    ISBN: 0521454530
    ISBN: 0521050510
    Source: Cambridge Core All Books (Cambridge University Press)〈img src=https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/CUP%20logo%20%282%29.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.185-202
    Description: Food security is an issue that will continue to challenge agricultural production and the distribution of produce. While access to food has improved in the past couple of years the challenges of a changing climate, urbanization, and resource security will require attention to improving productivity within the current land resource. Fertilizers enable half the world’s food to be produced. Sulfur is important as an essential plant nutrient that assists with both the quantity and the quality of a range of plant products. It is also critical for animal nutrition. In crops, nitrogen and sulfur nutrition are closely tied and changes in N/S ratio can result in changes in grain quality. This balance, along with the role of nitrogen and phosphorus, indicate that sulfur is a key part of a balanced plant nutrition program to meet future food security. Grains represent the major depletion of sulfur in a national sulfur audit, followed by livestock, and a national audit suggests an annual sulfur removal of 0.4 kg S ha−1, similar to an audit from 1995. This is balanced by the input of sulfur containing fertilizer as well as the use of agricultural gypsum and manures and inputs from sulfur in irrigation water and the atmosphere. Much of the sulfur in soils is present in organic matter, which must be mineralized before plants can access it. Sulfate ions remain in soil solution and are readily leached, and with changing farming systems, the number of sulfur deficient soils is increasing. As a result, there has been a steady increase in the demand for sulfur for crop nutrition. There is a global supply of around 50 Mt of sulfur, with nearly all recovered from S-rich oil and gas with a growth of around 5% per annum predicted. 85% of sulfur is used for sulfuric acid production including the manufacture of a range of sulfur containing fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate and single superphosphate, although newer sulfur fortified products are entering the market. Attention to using the appropriate source of sulfur at the right rate and at the right time and place will be key strategies to help with sustainable food production now and in the future.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 9
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.53-59
    Description: Cyanobacteria are representative photoautotrophic organisms that are capable of regulating metabolic pathways under varying light and nutritional conditions. We investigated this metabolic regulation under sulfur starvation with a focus on amino acid metabolism. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify amino acid contents. The results revealed sulfur deprivation-induced temporal changes in the amount of free amino acids in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. This is the first study to report altered metabolite levels in response to sulfur starvation in cyanobacteria.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 10
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.25-33
    Description: Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for plants with important roles in biological structure and function. Although it has long been known that sulfate uptake, assimilation and metabolism are highly controlled by sulfur availability, the detailed mechanism of regulation has only recently begun to be elucidated. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of plant response to sulfur limitation.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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