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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Encyclopedia of Agrophysics
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Environmental Sciences
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied Hydrogeophysics
    In: NATO Science, Applied Hydrogeophysics, pp.1-8
    Description: Soils and groundwater are important natural resources that sustain life on Earth. In the last century, the enormous expansion of industrial and agricultural activities has led to an increased environmental pressure on these systems. Soils and groundwater are extremely important because...
    Keywords: Sciences of the Universe ; Earth Sciences ; Hydrology ; Environmental Sciences ; Global Changes ; Environmental Sciences
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, Soil Chemical Pollution, Risk Assessment, Remediation and Security, pp.183-202
    Description: We introduce ground penetrating radar (GPR) basic principles and applications in environmental engineering, with emphasis on quantitative methods for soil water content estimation. The main limitations of these techniques are discussed. Then, we summarize our recent advances on the development and use of advanced off-ground GPR for shallow subsurface characterization. The proposed method is based on full-waveform forward and inverse modelling of the radar signal, thereby maximising inherently information retrieval capabilities from the radar measurements.
    Keywords: Environment ; Environment, General ; Chemistry/Food Science, General ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Terrestrial Pollution ; Analytical Chemistry ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISBN: 9781402082559
    ISBN: 140208255X
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 4
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: NATO Science Series, Applied Hydrogeophysics, pp.255-292
    Description: The self-potential method consists in the passive measurement of the distribution of the electrical potential at the ground surface of the Earth and in boreholes. The purpose of this method is to map the electrical potential to reveal one or several polarization mechanisms at play in the ground. In some cases, the self-potential signals are monitored with a network of non-polarisable electrodes, which provides both a better signal-to-noise ratio and the possibility to discriminate between various sources. The two main contributions to the self-potential signals are (1) the streaming potential or hydroelectric coupling (Fournier, 1989; Birch, 1993, 1998; Aubert and Yéné Atangana, 1996; Revil and Leroy, 2001) and (2) electro-chemical processes (membrane or diffusion potentials) associated with gradients of the chemical potentials of ionic species in the pore water (e.g., Sen, 1991; Naudet et al., 2003, 2004; Revil and Leroy, 2005). In the former case, the self-potential signal correponds to the electrical field associated with the flow of ground water in a porous medium and more precisely with the drag of the excess of charge generally contained in the so-called diffuse layer in the vicinity of the mineral surface (e.g. Revil and Leroy, 2004). If the chemical potential concerns the electrons (redox potential), the transfer of electrons through an electronic conductor also generates self-potential signals in the surrounding conductive medium as discussed by Sato and Mooney (1960).
    Keywords: Geosciences ; Hydrogeology ; Geophysics/Geodesy ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Environmental Physics ; Terrestrial Pollution ; Geography
    ISBN: 9781402049101
    ISBN: 1402049102
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 5
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: NATO Science Series, Applied Hydrogeophysics, pp.233-254
    Description: In many countries all around the world, the most densely populated regions are located in coastal areas since they normally provide the best conditions for both economical development and quality of life. On the other hand, coastal zones more than other regions suffer from natural disasters such as flooding and tsunami as well as from scarcity of fresh groundwater due to seawater intrusion. The latter problem is usually caused by a violation of a delicate hydrogeological balance that exists between freshwater and seawater in coastal aquifers. In most cases, the balance is disturbed by groundwater pumping and other human activities (e.g. land drainage) that lower groundwater levels and ultimately cause seawater encroachment into coastal aquifers. Although this problem is fairly important in all coastal aquifers, it becomes crucial in arid and semi-arid regions, where precipitation is limited and groundwater thus represents the main, if not only, source of fresh water.
    Keywords: Geosciences ; Hydrogeology ; Geophysics/Geodesy ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Environmental Physics ; Terrestrial Pollution ; Geography
    ISBN: 9781402049101
    ISBN: 1402049102
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 6
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: NATO Science Series, Applied Hydrogeophysics, pp.195-232
    Description: The use of geophysical methods to characterize distribution of continuous and discontinuous permafrost has been widely applied (e.g. Arcone et al., 1998; Sullivan et al., 2000; Hauck et al., 2001; Hinkel et al., 2001; Moorman et al., 2003) including ground penetrating radar (GPR), electrical resistivity (ER) and electromagnetic (EM) sounding. Different methods have been employed to study water movement in frozen soils: time domain reflectrometry (TDR), electrical resistivity (ER), EM soundings and self potential (SP). In this chapter the main focus is on the use of geophysical methods to solve hydrological problems in areas with frozen conditions, but also includes examples of characterisation of structures in the permafrost which have an importance for hydrogeological processes in these regions. Frozen and thawed structures in the subsurface may cause water and contaminant pathways which are not intuitively based on traditional soil stratification procedures. Because these structures are temperature dependent there may also be a need to monitor spatio-temporal changes in these structures in order to assess how they may affect flow paths in the ground. Time-lapse measurements may hence be required. To study changes in the soilwater system under frozen or partially frozen conditions can be a challenge; soil water sampling equipment may freeze and destructive methods such as conventional soil sampling is impossible under frozen conditions. The objective of conducting various geophysical methods in a hydrological perspective is to describe flow paths and to improve models for water and solute transport under partially frozen conditions.
    Keywords: Geosciences ; Hydrogeology ; Geophysics/Geodesy ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Environmental Physics ; Terrestrial Pollution ; Geography
    ISBN: 9781402049101
    ISBN: 1402049102
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 7
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: NATO Science Series, Applied Hydrogeophysics, pp.161-193
    Description: The geologic record suggests the presence of microbes on Earth as early as the Precambrian (Hall-Stoodley et al., 2004). Microbes are involved in practically every aspect of earth evolution. The term microbe is a general descriptor for tiny organisms that individually are too small to be seen with the unaided eye. Microbes may include bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists. Viruses are also included as a major type of microbe, although there is some debate whether viruses can be classified as living organisms. The role microbes play in altering environmental systems is well documented in many biogeochemical studies. Notable is the role of microbes in water-rock interactions (Chapelle and Bradley, 1997). Field observations and laboratory experiments suggest that bacteria can accelerate silicate weathering either by direct contact with minerals or by producing organic and inorganic acids that enhance the dissolution of silicates (Heibert and Bennett, 1992). Thus, microbes are able to directly alter mineral surface chemistry and pore water chemistry over short to geologic time scales. Microbial induced changes in water-rock-regolith environments over variable time scales cause changes in the physical properties of these environments that may be detected and measured using geophysical methodologies.
    Keywords: Geosciences ; Hydrogeology ; Geophysics/Geodesy ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Environmental Physics ; Terrestrial Pollution ; Geography
    ISBN: 9781402049101
    ISBN: 1402049102
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 8
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: NATO Science Series, Applied Hydrogeophysics, pp.117-159
    Description: Soils and aquifers are major compartments of the subsurface environment, which together control the terrestrial hydrological cycle. This subsurface is important for water resources and also as repository for municipal, industrial, and government waste. Aquifers are typically recharged by natural rainfall entering the soil profile and leaching into deeper soil layers. Due to intensive agricultural or industrial activities the leachate leaving the soil profile and entering the aquifer may contain concentrations of toxic substances such as agrochemicals, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. At contaminated industrial sites light and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs, DNAPLs) may be transported as a separate phase to the underlying aquifer systems. Once any of these chemicals have entered the aquifer they can be transported over large horizontal distances thus contaminating large parts of the aquifer and threateningwater supplywells. Remediation of highly contaminated aquifer systems is commonly a long-term and expensive proposition. As safe and effective use of the subsurface environment is a major challenge facing our society, there is a great need to improve our understanding of the shallow subsurface and the groundwater systems. This particularly includes the understanding of transport processes, which are responsible for the fate of contaminants.
    Keywords: Geosciences ; Hydrogeology ; Geophysics/Geodesy ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Environmental Physics ; Terrestrial Pollution ; Geography
    ISBN: 9781402049101
    ISBN: 1402049102
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 9
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: NATO Science Series, Applied Hydrogeophysics, pp.75-116
    Description: The vadose zone, i.e., the part of subsurface above thewater table, is home to a number of key processes that control the mass and energy exchanges between the subsurface and the atmosphere. Vadose zone hydrology provides boundary conditions for both atmospheric processes, including micro-meteorology and climatic changes, and subsurface water migration, with strong implications in water resources management. The rates, timing, and patterns of aquifer recharge are controlled by percolation through the vadose zone. Contaminants released near the ground surface can be altered, retarded or wholly removed by biological, chemical and physical processes in the vadose zone before reaching underlying aquifers. Unsaturated processes control also the availability of water for agriculture, and are the driving mechanisms in slope stability, floods and other major engineering geology problems. Fewhydrological problems of practical interest can neglect the importance of the complex, non linear dynamics of vadose zone processes. However, in practice, the impact of the vadose zone on hydrologic problems is often ignored or treated using highly simplified approximations, mainly because of limited available data in this region. A proper characterization of the vadose zone should also account for the natural variability of the soil properties at different scales.
    Keywords: Geosciences ; Hydrogeology ; Geophysics/Geodesy ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Environmental Physics ; Terrestrial Pollution ; Geography
    ISBN: 9781402049101
    ISBN: 1402049102
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 10
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: NATO Science Series, Applied Hydrogeophysics, pp.45-74
    Description: A dc resistivity survey is an inexpensive and widely used technique for investigation of near surface resistivity anomalies. It recently has become popular for the investigation of subsurface pollution problems (NRC, 2000). In principle, it measures the electric potential field generated by a transmission of dc electric current between electrodes implanted at the ground surface. Then, an apparent (bulk or effective) electrical resistivity for a particular set of measurement electrodes is calculated using formulas that assume homogeneous earth. Many pairs of current transmission and electric potential measurements are used to “map” subsurface electrical resistivity anomalies.
    Keywords: Geosciences ; Hydrogeology ; Geophysics/Geodesy ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Environmental Physics ; Terrestrial Pollution ; Geography
    ISBN: 9781402049101
    ISBN: 1402049102
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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