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  • Review  (26)
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  • Review  (26)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, July 2001, Vol.8(4), pp.305-310
    Description: Recent technological advances have made possible the introduction of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system into the operating room to guide neurosurgical interventions. We review the possibilities and limitations associated with various open-configuration magnet designs, including systems from the Phillips, Siemens, General Electric, Odin and IMRIS designs. This technology has been shown to be a feasible adjunct to current neurosurgical management of intracranial brain tumors for both biopsy and resection procedures and shows significant potential applications for epilepsy surgery, spine surgery and for minimally invasive interventional techniques. Combined with other surgical planning modalities, intra-operative MRI scanners provide an evolutionary influence on the design of today's operating room.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0967-5868
    E-ISSN: 1532-2653
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  • 2
    In: BJU International, December 2016, Vol.118(6), pp.855-863
    Description: The identification of molecular markers associated with response to specific therapy is a key step for the implementation of personalised treatment strategies in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Only in a low proportion of patients biopsies of metastatic tissue are performed. Circulating tumour cells (), cell‐free (cf) and offer the potential for non‐invasive characterisation of disease and molecular stratification of patients. Furthermore, a ‘liquid biopsy’ approach permits longitudinal assessments, allowing sequential monitoring of response and progression and the potential to alter therapy based on observed molecular changes. In prostate cancer, enumeration using the CellSearch© platform correlates with survival. Recent studies on the presence of androgen receptor () variants in have shown that such molecular characterisation of provides a potential for identifying patients with resistance to agents that inhibit the androgen signalling axis, such as abiraterone and enzalutamide. New developments in isolation, as well as and analysis of will further promote the use of as a tool for retrieving molecular information from advanced tumours in order to identify mechanisms of therapy resistance. In addition to , nucleic acids such as and cf released by tumour cells into the peripheral blood contain important information on transcriptomic and genomic alterations in the tumours. Initial studies have shown that genomic alterations of the and other genes detected in or cf of patients with castration‐resistant prostate cancer correlate with treatment outcomes to enzalutamide and abiraterone. Due to recent developments in high‐throughput analysis techniques, it is likely that , cf and will be an important component of personalised treatment strategies in the future.
    Keywords: Prostate Cancer ; Biomarker ; Liquid Biopsy ; Circulating Tumour Cell ; Cell‐Free Dna
    ISSN: 1464-4096
    E-ISSN: 1464-410X
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  • 3
    In: International Journal of Urology, January 2017, Vol.24(1), pp.7-15
    Description: Muscle‐invasive bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with different clinical phenotypes. Histomorphological variants, variable mutation rates and aberrant protein expression, along with the recently identified molecular subtypes, have been linked to prognosis and response to therapy. Complete response to chemotherapy and outcome after radical cystectomy are difficult to predict. To date, no validated pathological or clinical test exists to predict response. Advances in high‐throughput, next‐generation, genomic techniques to study the molecular pathways that govern the disease have led to novel strategies for the identification of such biomarkers relevant to muscle‐invasive bladder cancer. Progress has been made not only in tissue‐based biomarkers, but also in the liquid biopsy field. Liquid biopsies represent an opportunity to obtain patient samples non‐invasively at multiple time‐points during their treatment course without the need for biopsy. Especially in the metastatic setting, this will allow monitoring of the molecular evolution of the tumor under treatment, which should inform subsequent therapeutic decisions.
    Keywords: Biomarker ; Bladder Cancer ; Precision Oncology ; Recurrence ; Targeted Therapy
    ISSN: 0919-8172
    E-ISSN: 1442-2042
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  • 4
    In: Global Change Biology, January 2015, Vol.21(1), pp.48-61
    Description: Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local‐scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio‐economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience‐Based management () framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press‐type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse‐type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown‐of‐thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo‐Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on‐the‐ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on actions that support resilience at finer spatial scales, and that are tightly linked to ecosystem goods and services.
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Coral Reefs ; Ecosystem Vulnerability ; Environmental Management ; Ocean Acidification ; Social‐Ecological System ; Structured Decision‐Making
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Developmental Neurobiology, September 2011, Vol.71(9), pp.790-794
    Description: The neuronal cytoskeleton consists of microtubules, actin filaments, neurofilaments, and an array of accessory proteins that regulate and modify these three main filament systems. This essay celebrates the career of Paul Letourneau, a pioneer of the neuronal cytoskeleton, to whom the community owes a debt of gratitude. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2011
    Keywords: Microtubule ; Neuron ; Axon ; Actin ; Growth Cone
    ISSN: 1932-8451
    E-ISSN: 1932-846X
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  • 6
    In: Clinical Endocrinology, September 2012, Vol.77(3), pp.335-342
    Description: 3‐M syndrome is an autosomal recessive primordial growth disorder characterized by small birth size and post‐natal growth restriction associated with a spectrum of minor anomalies (including a triangular‐shaped face, flat cheeks, full lips, short chest and prominent fleshy heels). Unlike many other primordial short stature syndromes, intelligence is normal and there is no other major system involvement, indicating that 3‐M is predominantly a growth‐related condition. From an endocrine perspective, serum GH levels are usually normal and IGF‐I normal or low, while growth response to rhGH therapy is variable but typically poor. All these features suggest a degree of resistance in the GH‐IGF axis. To date, mutations in three genes , and have been shown to cause 3‐M. CUL7 acts an ubiquitin ligase and is known to interact with p53, cyclin D‐1 and the growth factor signalling molecule IRS‐1, the link with the latter may contribute to the GH‐IGF resistance. OBSL1 is a putative cytoskeletal adaptor that interacts with and stabilizes CUL7. CCDC8 is the newest member of the pathway and interacts with OBSL1 and, like CUL7, associates with p53, acting as a co‐factor in p53‐medicated apoptosis. 3‐M patients without a mutation have also been identified, indicating the involvement of additional genes in the pathway. Potentially damaging sequence variants in and have been identified in idiopathic short stature (ISS), including those born small with failure of catch‐up growth, signifying that the 3‐M pathway could play a wider role in disordered growth.
    Keywords: Ubiquitin ; Tumor Proteins ; Short Stature;
    ISSN: 0300-0664
    E-ISSN: 1365-2265
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Mariner's Mirror, 01 January 2000, Vol.86(4), pp.479-509
    Keywords: Military & Naval Science
    ISSN: 0025-3359
    E-ISSN: 2049-680X
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Mariner's Mirror, 01/2002, Vol.88(3), pp.353-381
    Keywords: Military & Naval Science;
    ISSN: 0025-3359
    E-ISSN: 2049-680X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The International History Review, 01 March 1994, Vol.16(1), pp.114-224
    Description: JOHN BOARDMAN et al., eds. The Cambridge Ancient History. Volume III, pt. 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Pp. xix,...
    Keywords: History & Archaeology
    ISSN: 0707-5332
    E-ISSN: 1949-6540
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The International History Review, 01 May 1983, Vol.5(2), pp.291-314
    Description: ROBERT J. YOUNG. French Foreign Policy, Nineteen Eighteen to Nineteen Forty-Five: A Guide to Research and Research Materials, ed. Christoph M. Kimmich. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1981. Pp. xv, 242. $17.50 (US). Reviewed by A.S. Kanya-Forstner CHRISTOPH...
    Keywords: History & Archaeology
    ISSN: 0707-5332
    E-ISSN: 1949-6540
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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