Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg


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  • Review  (5)
Type of Medium
  • Review  (5)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Antiviral Research, 2001, Vol.49(3), pp.129-145
    Description: The replication cycle of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is characterized by the expression of immediate early (IE), early (E), and late (L) gene regions. Current antiviral strategies are directed against the viral DNA polymerase expressed during the early phase of infection. The regulation of the IE-1 and IE-2 gene expression is the key to latency and active replication due to their transactivating and repressing functions. There is growing evidence that the pathogenic features of HCMV are largely due to the abilities of IE-1 and IE-2 to transactivate cellular genes. Consequently, current drugs used to inhibit HCMV infection would have no impact on IE-1 and IE-2-induced effects that are produced before the early phase. Moreover, when HCMV DNA replication is inhibited, IE gene products accumulate in infected cells causing disturbances of host cell functions. This review summarizes the biological functions of HCMV-IE gene expression, their relevance in pathogenesis, as well as efforts to develop novel treatment strategies directed against HCMV-IE expression.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus ; Immediate Early Gene Expression ; Immunopathomechanisms ; Antiviral Therapy ; Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 0166-3542
    E-ISSN: 1872-9096
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Medicinal Research Reviews, March 2005, Vol.25(2), pp.167-185
    Description: It has been known for a long time that cytomegalovirus (CMV) has evolved mechanisms that allow the escape from the host immune surveillance. In the past, many efforts have been done to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this virus‐mediated immune escape and thus virus persistence. However, it is unknown, whether CMV may also impair immune responses directed against tumor cells. This might have severe consequences on tumor progression and may explain the growing evidence for CMV‐mediated oncomodulation. This review summarizes recent work on CMV‐mediated immune escape mechanisms of tumor cells and oncomodulation and proposes novel aspects that may be important for understanding the CMV‐associated tumor progression. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus Hcmv ; Oncomodulation ; Tumor ; Dna‐Virus ; Apoptosis ; Angiogenesis
    ISSN: 0198-6325
    E-ISSN: 1098-1128
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 01 June 2004, Vol.4(6), pp.827-836
    Description: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by the SARS coronavirus (SCV). The disease appeared in the Guandong province of southern China in 2002. The epidemic affected 〉 8422 patients and caused 908 deaths in 29 countries on 5 continents. Several treatment modalities were tried...
    Keywords: Interferon ; Sars ; Sars Coronavirus ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 1471-2598
    E-ISSN: 1744-7682
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  • 4
    In: FEMS Microbiology Reviews, February 2004, Vol.28(1), pp.59-77
    Description: A high frequency of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome and antigens in tumor samples of patients with different malignancies is now well documented, although the causative role for HCMV in the development of the neoplasias remains to be established. HCMV infection can modulate multiple cellular regulatory and signalling pathways in a manner similar to that of oncoproteins of small DNA tumor viruses such as human papilloma virus or adenoviruses. However, in contrast to these DNA tumor viruses, HCMV infection fails to transform susceptible normal human cells. There is now growing evidence that tumor cells with disrupted regulatory and signalling pathways enable HCMV to modulate their properties including stimulation of cell proliferation, survival, invasion, production of angiogenic factors, and immunogenic properties. In contrast to previously suggested “hit and run” transformation we suggest that persistence in tumor cells is essential for HCMV to fully express its oncomodulatory effects. These effects are observed particularly in persistent HCMV infection and are mediated mainly by activity of HCMV regulatory proteins. In persistently HCMV‐infected tumor cell lines – a selection of novel, slowly growing virus variants with changes in coding sequences for virus regulatory proteins takes place. As a result, oncomodulatory effects of HCMV infection may lead to a shift to more malignant phenotype of tumor cells contributing to tumor progression.
    Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus ; Oncomodulation ; Tumor ; Dna‐Virus ; Apoptosis ; Angiogenesis
    ISSN: 0168-6445
    E-ISSN: 1574-6976
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, 08/2007, Vol.45(3), pp.408-408
    Description: We perform helioseismic holography on realistic solar convection simulations and compare the observed travel-time perturbations with the expected travel times from the horizontal flows in the simulations computed from forward models under the assumption of the Born approximation. We demonstrate reasonable agreement between the observed and model travel times, which reinforces the validity of helioseismic holography in the detection of subsurface horizontal flows. An assessment is made of the uncertainty of the measured p-mode travel times from the rms of the residuals. From the variation of the signal-to-noise ratio with depth we conclude that the helioseismic detection of individual flow structures with spatial scales of supergranulation or smaller is not possible for depths below about 5 Mm below the surface over timescales of less than a day. The travel-time noise estimated from these simulations appears to be similar to noise in measurements made using solar observations. We therefore suggest that similar limitations exist regarding the detection of analogous subsurface flows in the Sun. A study of the depth dependence of the contribution to the travel-time perturbations for focus depths between 3 and 7 Mm is made, showing that approximately half of the observed signal originates within the first 2 Mm below the surface. A consequence of this is a rapid decrease (and reversal in some cases) of the travel-time perturbations with depth due to the contribution to the measurements of oppositely directed surface flows in neighboring convective cells. This confirms an earlier interpretation of similar effects reported from observations of supergranulation.
    Keywords: Computer Simulation ; Mathematical Models ; Perturbation Methods ; Holography ; Noise ; Horizontal ; Convection Modes ; Convection ; Astrophysics (Ah) ; Article;
    ISSN: 1058-4838
    ISSN: 0004637X
    E-ISSN: 1537-6591
    E-ISSN: 15384357
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