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  • Review  (251)
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  • Review  (251)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Eating Disorders, 30 September 2010, Vol.18(5), pp.452-455
    Keywords: Psychology
    ISSN: 1064-0266
    E-ISSN: 1532-530X
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 2
    In: FEBS Letters, 09 March 2012, Vol.586(5), pp.545-556
    Description: Hydrogenases catalyze the activation or production of molecular hydrogen. Due to their potential importance for future biotechnological applications, these enzymes have been in the focus of intense research for the past decades. Bidirectional [NiFe] hydrogenases are of particular interest as they couple the reversible cleavage of hydrogen to the redox conversion of NAD(H). In this account, we review the current state of knowledge about mechanistic aspects and structural determinants of these complex multi‐cofactor enzymes. Special emphasis is laid on the oxygen‐tolerant NAD(H)‐linked bidirectional [NiFe] hydrogenase from . ► We review characteristics of NADH‐linked bidirectional hydrogenases. ► Structural insights from spectroscopy are related to functional properties. ► Additional information is derived from comparison with similar enzymes. ► Peculiarities of the bidirectional hydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha are discussed. ► The oxygen tolerance of this enzyme is not related to additional cyanide ligands.
    Keywords: Biocatalysis ; Hydrogenase ; Spectroscopy ; Oxygen Tolerance ; Nadh Regeneration ; Biofuel
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    E-ISSN: 1873-3468
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  • 3
    In: Epilepsia, December 2012, Vol.53(12), pp.2099-2103
    Description: Emil Theodor Kocher (1841–1917) was a pioneering and versatile Swiss surgeon who played a decisive role in the surgical evolution on the threshold to the 20th century. Apart from conducting intense research and fostering the development of the surgical treatment of thyroid gland diseases (honored with a Nobel Prize in 1909), he remained a generalist and was active in orthopedic, genitourinary, and neurologic surgery. Even today, many surgical techniques and instruments are still named after him, thus providing evidence of his great impact. His neurosurgical ambitions included, in particular, cerebral and spinal trauma, the pathophysiology of elevated intracranial pressure, as well as etiological considerations and the operative treatment of epilepsy. This article aims to shed light on Kocher’s work on epilepsy, published exclusively in German, and illustrates the development of his idea on valve surgery for recurrent general convulsions.
    Keywords: Emil Theodor Kocher ; Epilepsy ; History ; Valve Surgery
    ISSN: 0013-9580
    E-ISSN: 1528-1167
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Perspectives on Politics, 03/2014, Vol.12(1), pp.257-259
    Keywords: Politics; Political Movements/Activism ; Article;
    ISSN: 1537-5927
    E-ISSN: 1541-0986
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Anatomical Sciences Education, July 2010, Vol.3(4), pp.202-212
    Description: Although traditional departments of anatomy are vanishing from medical school rosters, anatomical education still remains an important part of the professional training of physicians. It is of some interest to examine whether history can teach us anything about how to reform modern anatomy. Are there lessons to be learned from the history of anatomical teaching in the United States that can help in the formulation of contents and purposes of a new anatomy? This question is explored by a review of US anatomical teaching with special reference to Franklin Paine Mall and the University of Michigan Medical School. An historical perspective reveals that there is a tradition of US anatomical teaching and research that is characterized by a zeal for reform and innovation, scientific endeavor, and active, student‐driven learning. Further, there is a tradition of high standards in anatomical teaching through the teachers' engagement in scientific anatomy and of adaptability to new requirements. These traditional strengths can inform the innovation of modern anatomy in terms of its two duties—its duty to anatomy as a science and its duty toward anatomical education. Anat Sci Educ 3:202–212, 2010 © 2010 American Association of Anatomists.
    Keywords: History Of Anatomy ; Anatomical Education ; Reform Of Modern Anatomy ; University Of Michigan ; Franklin P. Mall ; Ethics In Anatomy ; Review
    ISSN: 1935-9772
    E-ISSN: 1935-9780
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  • 6
    In: European Eating Disorders Review, September 2017, Vol.25(5), pp.329-343
    Description: Intolerance of uncertainty is an empirically supported transdiagnostic construct that may have relevance in understanding eating disorders. We conducted a meta‐analysis and systematic review of intolerance of uncertainty in eating disorders using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We calculated random‐effects standardised mean differences (SMD) for studies utilising the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) and summarised additional studies descriptively. Women with eating disorders have significantly higher IUS scores compared with healthy controls (SMD = 1.90; 95% C.I. 1.24 to 2.56;  〈 0.001). meta‐analysis revealed significant differences when comparing women with anorexia nervosa with controls (SMD = 2.16; 95% C.I. 1.14 to 3.18;  0.001) and women with bulimia nervosa with controls (SMD = 2.03; 95% C.I. 1.30 to 2.75;  0.001). Our synthesis of findings suggests that intolerance of uncertainty may represent a vulnerability and maintenance factor for eating disorders and potential target of cognitive, behavioural, interoceptive and affective symptoms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
    Keywords: Intolerance Of Uncertainty ; Eating Disorders ; Anorexia Nervosa ; Bulimia Nervosa ; Neurobiology
    ISSN: 1072-4133
    E-ISSN: 1099-0968
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  • 7
    In: Addiction, August 2009, Vol.104(8), pp.1281-1290
    Description: Recently, Witkiewitz & Marlatt reformulated the Marlatt & Gordon relapse model to account for current research findings. The present paper aims to extend this model further to incorporate social variables more fully. The social‐factors and alcohol‐relapse literatures were reviewed within the framework of the reformulated relapse model. The literature review found that the number of social network members, investment of the individual in the social network, levels of general and alcohol‐specific support available within the social network and specific behaviors of network members all predict drinking outcomes. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which these social variables influence outcomes. The authors postulate that social variables influence outcomes by affecting intra‐individual factors central to the reformulated relapse prevention model, including processes (e.g. self‐efficacy, outcome expectancies, craving, motivation, negative affective states) and behaviors (e.g. coping and substance use). The authors suggest specific hypotheses and discuss methods that can be used to study the impact of social factors on the intra‐individual phenomena that contribute to relapse. The proposed extension of the relapse model provides testable hypotheses that may guide future alcohol‐relapse research.
    Keywords: Alcohol Expectancies ; Coping ; Craving ; Interpersonal Behavior ; Motivation ; Negative Affect ; Non‐Linear Modelling ; Relapse ; Self‐Efficacy ; Social Factors
    ISSN: 0965-2140
    E-ISSN: 1360-0443
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: ASN Neuro, November 2016, Vol.8(6)
    Description: Much confusion surrounds the physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). It is, however, anticipated that knowledge of its function will shed light on its contribution to neurodegenerative diseases and suggest ways to interfere with the cellular toxicity central to them. Consequently, efforts to elucidate its function have been all but exhaustive. Building on earlier work that uncovered the evolutionary descent of the prion founder gene from an ancestral ZIP zinc transporter, we recently investigated a possible role of PrPC in a morphogenetic program referred to as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). By capitalizing on PrPC knockout cell clones in a mammalian cell model of EMT and using a comparative proteomics discovery strategy, neural cell adhesion molecule-1 emerged as a protein whose upregulation during EMT was perturbed in PrPC knockout cells. Follow-up work led us to observe that PrPC regulates the polysialylation of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM1 in cells undergoing morphogenetic reprogramming. In addition to governing cellular migration, polysialylation modulates several other cellular plasticity programs PrPC has been phenotypically linked to. These include neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, controlled mossy fiber sprouting and trimming in the hippocampal formation, hematopoietic stem cell renewal, myelin repair and maintenance, integrity of the circadian rhythm, and glutamatergic signaling. This review revisits this body of literature and attempts to present it in light of this novel contextual framework. When approached in this manner, a coherent model of PrPC acting as a regulator of polysialylation during specific cell and tissue morphogenesis events comes into focus.
    Keywords: Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules ; Polysialic Acid ; Prion Protein ; Polysialyltransferases ; Signaling ; Protein Function ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1759-0914
    Source: Sage Journals (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE STM (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Clinical Medicine (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Neurology (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Health Sciences (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Open Access Journals (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Communication and Media Studies (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Journals (Sage Publications)
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  • 9
    In: BioEssays, November 2018, Vol.40(11), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: increase individual fitness or not. Using examples of organs that respond with hypertrophy or hyperplasia to osmotic stress, the authors illustrate the need of studying costs and benefits of such changes and the underlying molecular mechanisms to better understand their biological significance.
    Keywords: Hyperplasia ; Hypertrophy ; Organ Size ; Phenotypic Elasticity ; Phenotypic Plasticity ; Salt/Water Balance
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    E-ISSN: 1521-1878
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, July 2008, Vol.2008(21), pp.3241-3251
    Description: In this microreview we describe the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurring between closely spaced energy‐donor and ‐acceptor molecules. The theoretical treatment is depicted in relation with the data extractable from spectroscopic measurements. We present the specific case of semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots – QDs) as energy donors in FRET experiments and a particular emphasis is put on the specific advantages of these fluorophores with regard to both their exceptional photophysical properties and their nanoscopic morphology. In a following section, the special attributes of luminescent lanthanide complexes (LLCs) are outlined with illustrations of properties such as their characteristic emission spectra, long‐lived luminescence, and large “Stokes shift”. Finally, the successful combination of LLCs and QDs in FRET experiments is demonstrated, showing the unrivaled benefits of this singular marriage, opening doors for energy transfer at very large distances and excellent sensitivity of detection within the frame of time‐resolved fluoroimmunoassays.(© Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) Lanthanides go on the dot! Using quantum dots and luminescent lanthanide complexes in FRET experiments offers many advantages such as high sensitivity, large Förster radii, and multiplexing. The two FRET partners are described both as individuals or when combined in a powerful FRETcouple. This microreview covers theoretical and practical background for FRET applications.
    Keywords: Lanthanides ; Quantum Dots ; Immunoassays ; Luminescence ; Fret Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    E-ISSN: 1099-0682
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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