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  • 1
    Language: English
    Description: The proposed research involves the application of multispectral satellite data in combination with ground truth measurements to monitor surface properties of the Greenland Ice Sheet which are essential for describing the energy and mass of the ice sheet. Several key components of the energy balance are parameterized using satellite data and in situ measurements. The analysis has been done for a 6 to 17 year time period in order to analyze the seasonal and interannual variations of the surface processes and the climatology. Our goal was to investigate to what accuracy and over what geographic areas large scale snow properties and radiative fluxes can be derived based upon a combination of available remote sensing and meteorological data sets. For the understanding of the surface processes a field program was designed to collect information on spectral albedo, specular reflectance, soot content, grain size and the physical properties of different snow types. Further, the radiative and turbulent fluxes at the ice/snow surface were monitored for the parameterization and interpretation of the satellite data. Highlights include AVHRR time series and surface based radiation measurements, passive microwave time series, and geodetic results from the ETH/CU camp.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Source: NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Description: If the programming language Ada is to be widely used in artificial intelligence applications, it will be necessary to demonstrate to programmers that it can provide superior facilities for use in that domain. One means of doing this is to provide facilities for 'pattern-directed' programming within Ada. This report includes three papers, of which the first is designed to serve as an introduction to pattern-directed programming and to the significance of the two papers that follow. It includes discussions of artificial intelligence programming and the facilities provided by the Ada language, pattern-directed computation, pattern matching, and parsing. The other two papers deal with the use of Ada for pattern-directed programming. One paper deals with efficient implementation of pattern matching (within Ada), important because pattern matching tends to be inefficient, leading to problems with excessive processing time. Another paper treats extensions of pattern-direction from strings to more general data structures of the sort used in artificial intelligence. (Author)
    Keywords: Computer Programming and Software ; Programming Languages ; Artificial Intelligence ; Algorithms ; Computer Programming ; Linguistics ; Parsers ; Ada Programming Language ; Pattern Matching ; Wuafhrlilir2014 ; Pe61101f
    Source: United States Defense Technical Information Center
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Description: Drug-delivery systems that appear to be suitable for antiviral compounds can be grouped in three major categories. Accordingly, when a drug is encapsulated in a carrier or attached to macromolecules, endocytosis is the only mode of entry. Two types of endocytosis, phagocytosis and pinocytosis, constitute the physiologic basis of the delivery systems. In phagocytosis, particulate materials are transported in large intracellular vesicles. The drug is encapsulated in an insoluble carrier engulfed by phagocytic cells and is released after enzymatic breakdown of the carrier. In pinocytosis, soluble materials are transported in small vesicles. The linkage between drug and soluble carrier is stable in the plasma but is susceptible to hydrolysis by lysosomal enzymes. The third is an in-between type. The substance, the drug or the biological is encapsulated in a polymeric or liposomal carrier that, because of its location or size, is not taken up by the cells. Because of diffusion of the substance and bioerosion of the carrier, the biological or the drug is constantly released from the carrier into the circulation and eventually enters the cell via active or passive transport. Pub. in Applied Virology Research, v1 p241-264 1988.
    Keywords: Anatomy and Physiology ; Microbiology ; Pharmacology ; Antiviral Agents ; Phagocytes ; Herpes Simplex Virus ; Rift Valley Fever Virus ; Enzymes ; Passive Systems ; Macromolecules ; Phospholipids ; Reticuloendothelial System ; Vaccines ; Diffusion ; Interferon ; Liposome Encapsulated Ribavirin
    Source: United States Defense Technical Information Center
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