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  • Achalasia
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Langenbeck's archives of surgery, January 2012, Vol.397(1), pp.69-74
    Description: The efficacy of Heller myotomy in patients 〉40 years-a significant predictor suggesting a favorable response to pneumatic dilation-has been questioned. The aim of our study was to evaluate the results obtained in patients aged 40 years undergoing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for achalasia. In January 2008, we established the MIS technique for achalasia in our clinic. In the following period from January 2008 to March 2011, 74 patients underwent primary laparoscopic myotomy for achalasia. The procedure was accomplished with an anterior 180° semifundoplication according to Dor in all patients. The Eckardt score and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GQLI) served as outcome measures. The median age of patients was 45.5 years (range, 18-85 years) with a median duration of preoperative achalasia symptoms of 57 months (range, 2-468 months). There were no conversions to open surgery and-except for one patient with a sterile pleural effusion-no postoperative complications. At a median follow-up of 12 months, the preoperative Eckardt score of 7.0 (range, 3-12) was found to be significantly decreased to a median of 2 (range, 0-6; P 40 years, the postoperative Eckardt score obtained in the older patient population was not significantly lower (P = 0.074). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to the postoperative GQLI (P = 0.860). Neither gender nor preoperative Botox injection or pneumatic dilation inserted a significant influence on the postoperative clinical outcome (P 〉 0.05). Laparoscopic Heller myotomy for achalasia is associated with a high success rate as the primary therapeutic option and after failure of endoscopic therapy. It can be performed safely and with favorable outcomes also in patients 〉40 years. However, the long-term durability of the procedure remains to be established.
    Keywords: Esophageal Achalasia -- Surgery ; Esophagus -- Surgery ; Laparoscopy -- Methods
    ISSN: 14352443
    E-ISSN: 1435-2451
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  • 2
    In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2008, Vol.103(4), pp.856-864
    Description: BACKGROUND: The etiology of achalasia is still unknown. The current theories of chronic inflammation leading to autoimmune response with destruction and loss of the inhibitory myenteric ganglion cells enlighten its pathogenesis in a limited way only. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have been shown to be involved in nitrergic neurotransmission of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). AIM: To investigate the significance of ICC and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (n-NOS) in esophageal wall tissue of patients undergoing surgery for achalasia. METHODS: In 53 patients with a median age of 45 (6–78) yr undergoing surgery for achalasia, the immunoreactivity of ICC (CD117/c-kit) and n-NOS was assessed. In 42 patients, biopsies were taken from the LES high-pressure zone during Heller myotomy, whereas in 11 patients with end-stage achalasia and a decompensated megaesophagus, the complete esophagus was resected. A semiquantitative analysis was carried out and ICC and n-NOS impairments were classified into four grades. Staining intensity was correlated with preoperative clinical, radiologic, and manometric findings and with long-term postoperative Eckardt score. RESULTS: Grade III/IV ICC reduction (severe reduction to complete loss) was seen in 59.5% of all biopsy specimens of the LES high-pressure zone. Patients with grade III/IV ICC reduction had a significantly longer duration of achalasia symptoms (3 [0–43] yr) than patients with minor to marked (grade I/II) impairment (1 [0–16] yr, P= 0.028). A majority (72.5%) of tissue samples revealed severe reduction to complete loss of n-NOS immunoreactivity. The preoperative Eckardt score was statistically significantly different between patients with grade I/II and those with grade III/IV n-NOS reductions (P= 0.031). CD117 (c-kit) positivity was statistically significantly correlated with n-NOS staining intensity (correlation coefficient r= 0.781, P 〈 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that in the pathogenesis of achalasia, especially in the development of the LES high-pressure zone, depletion of ICC networks and potential changes in the electrical activity of smooth muscle cells may play a crucial role. The reduction in CD117-positive ICC in a few patients also seemed to be of relevance, even if the cells of Auerbachʼs plexus were unscathed. The associated reduced NOS release might underlie the profound ICC impairment and could possibly be responsible for the lack of LES relaxation, because of missing inhibitory neurotransmission. It is unclear, however, whether the ICC loss is primarily caused by the accelerated attrition of mature cells or their impaired regeneration.
    Keywords: Achalasia -- Development And Progression ; Achalasia -- Care And Treatment ; Neurons ; Nitric Oxide;
    ISSN: 0002-9270
    E-ISSN: 15720241
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Feb, 2010, Vol.14(1), p.46(12)
    Description: Byline: Ines Gockel (1), Stephan Timm (1), George G. Sgourakis (1), Thomas J. Musholt (1), Andreas D. Rink (1), Hauke Lang (1) Keywords: Myotomy; Achalasia; LES; Laparoscopic myotomy; Heller myotomy Abstract: Introduction Heller myotomy leads to good--excellent long-term results in 90% of patients with achalasia and thereby has evolved to the "first-line" therapy. Failure of surgical treatment, however, remains an urgent problem which has been discussed controversially recently. Materials and Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed to analyze the long-term results of failures after Heller's operation with emphasis on treatment by remedial myotomy. Discussion Other reinterventions and their causes after failure of surgical treatment in patients with achalasia are discussed. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of General and Abdominal Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131, Mainz, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 25/08/2009 Received Date: 29/04/2009 Accepted Date: 25/08/2009 Online Date: 24/10/2009
    Keywords: Surgery -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1091-255X
    E-ISSN: 18734626
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: German
    In: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, December 2016, Vol.158(21-22), pp.80-83
    Keywords: Achalasia ; Esophageal High Resolution Manometry ; Etiopathogenesis ; Laparoscopic Heller’s Myotomy ; Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy ; Pneumatic Dilation ; Esophageal Achalasia
    ISSN: 1438-3276
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, 2012, Vol.397(1), pp.69-74
    Keywords: Achalasia ; Minimally invasive Heller myotomy ; Dor semifundoplication ; Eckardt score ; Gastrointestinal quality of life index (GQLI)
    ISSN: 1435-2443
    E-ISSN: 1435-2451
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 6
    Language: German
    In: MMW - Fortschritte der Medizin, 12/2016, Vol.158(21-22), pp.80-83
    ISSN: 1438-3276
    E-ISSN: 1613-3560
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 2006, Vol.10(10), pp.1400-1408
    Description: Myotomy has proved to be an efficient primary therapy in patients with achalasia, especially in younger patients (〈40 years of age). The results of laparoscopic myotomy cannot be finally assessed, on account of the shorter postoperative follow-up. Thus, there are considerable data regarding intermediate-term outcomes after laparoscopic myotomy. The aim of our study was a 20-year analysis of the conventional cardiomyotomy as the underlying basis assessing the results of minimal-invasive surgery. Within 20 years (September 1985 through September 2005), 161 operations for achalasia were performed in our clinic. Enrolled in this study were 108 patients with a conventional, transabdominal myotomy in combination with an anterior semifundoplication (Dor procedure) and a minimal follow-up of 6 months. All patients were prospectively followed and, in addition to radiologic and manometric examinations of the esophagus, the patients were asked for their clinical symptoms by structured interviews in 2-year intervals. The median age at the time of surgery was 44.5 (range, 14–78) years, and 72.2% of the patients were males. The median length of the preoperative symptoms was 3 years (3 months to 50 years), and the postoperative follow-up was 55 (range, 6-206) months. In 70 (64.8%) patients, a pneumatic dilation had been performed. The preoperative Eckardt score of 6 (range, 2–12) could be reduced to 1 (range, 0–4) after myotomy ( P 〈0.0001). Consequently, with 97.2% of all patients, a good-to-excellent result was achieved in the long-term follow-up, corresponding to a clinical stage I-II. Postoperatively, 69 patients (63.9%) gained weight. The radiologically measured maximum diameter of the esophagus decreased from preoperatively 45 (range, 20–75) mm to postoperatively 30 (range, 20–60) mm, while the minimum diameter of the cardia increased from 3.4 (range, 1–10) mm to 10 (range, 5–15) mm. The resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter could be reduced from 28.4 (range, 9.4–56.0) mm Hg to 8.6 (range, 3.0–22.5) mm Hg. Conventional myotomy leads in the long run with high efficiency to an improvement of the symptoms evident in achalasia. These results may be regarded as the basis for assessment of the minimal-invasive procedure.
    Keywords: Achalasia ; conventional myotomy ; prospective 20-year analysis ; basis for assessing the laparoscopic procedure
    ISSN: 1091-255X
    E-ISSN: 1873-4626
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Gut, 20 September 2014, Vol.63(9), p.1401
    Description: Idiopathic achalasia is a rare motor disorder of the oesophagus characterised by neuronal loss at the lower oesophageal sphincter. Achalasia is generally accepted as a multifactorial disorder with various genetic and environmental factors being risk-associated. Since genetic factors predisposing to achalasia have been poorly documented, we assessed whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes mediating immune response and neuronal function contribute to achalasia susceptibility.
    Keywords: Achalasia ; Genetic Polymorphisms
    ISSN: 0017-5749
    ISSN: 00175749
    E-ISSN: 1468-3288
    E-ISSN: 14683288
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Human Genetics, 2010, Vol.128(4), pp.353-364
    Description: Despite increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of achalasia, the etiology of this esophageal motility disorder remains largely unknown. However, the occurrence of familial achalasia and its association with well-defined genetic syndromes suggest the involvement of genetic factors. Mutant mouse models display gastrointestinal disturbances that are similar to those observed in achalasia patients. The candidate gene approach has revealed some promising results; however, it has not established conclusive links to specific genes so far. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge of the genetics of achalasia. We also discuss the extent to which our understanding of achalasia is likely to be enhanced through future molecular genetic research.
    Keywords: Genetic Research -- Analysis ; Achalasia -- Development And Progression ; Achalasia -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0340-6717
    E-ISSN: 1432-1203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Human Genetics, Oct, 2010, Vol.128(4), p.353(12)
    Description: Despite increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of achalasia, the etiology of this esophageal motility disorder remains largely unknown. However, the occurrence of familial achalasia and its association with well-defined genetic syndromes suggest the involvement of genetic factors. Mutant mouse models display gastrointestinal disturbances that are similar to those observed in achalasia patients. The candidate gene approach has revealed some promising results; however, it has not established conclusive links to specific genes so far. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge of the genetics of achalasia. We also discuss the extent to which our understanding of achalasia is likely to be enhanced through future molecular genetic research.
    Keywords: Genetic Research -- Analysis ; Achalasia -- Development And Progression ; Achalasia -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0340-6717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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