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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • Adsorption
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental pollution, 2011, Vol.159(5), pp.1398-1405
    Description: Arsenic mobility may increase in liquid phase due to association with colloidal Fe oxides. We studied the association of As with Fe oxide colloids in the effluent from water-saturated soil columns run under anoxic conditions. Upon exfiltration, the solutions, which contained Fe²⁺, were re-aerated and ferrihydrite colloids precipitated. The entire amount of effluent As was associated with the ferrihydrite colloids, although PO₄ ³⁻, SiO₄ ⁴⁻, CO₃ ²⁻ and dissolved organic matter were present in the effluent during ferrihydrite colloid formation. Furthermore, no subsequent release of As from the ferrihydrite colloids was observed despite the presence of these (in)organic species known to compete with As for adsorption on Fe oxides. Arsenic was bound via inner-sphere complexation on the ferrihydrite surface. FTIR spectroscopy also revealed adsorption of PO₄ ³⁻ and polymerized silica. However, these species could not impede the quantitative association of As with colloidal ferrihydrite in the soil effluents. ; p. 1398-1405.
    Keywords: Iron Oxides ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Effluents ; Arsenic ; Adsorption ; Polymerization ; Anaerobic Conditions ; Ferrihydrite ; Iron ; Colloids ; Silica ; Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ; Soil
    ISSN: 0269-7491
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2011, Vol.159(5), pp.1398-1405
    Description: Arsenic mobility may increase in liquid phase due to association with colloidal Fe oxides. We studied the association of As with Fe oxide colloids in the effluent from water-saturated soil columns run under anoxic conditions. Upon exfiltration, the solutions, which contained Fe , were re-aerated and ferrihydrite colloids precipitated. The entire amount of effluent As was associated with the ferrihydrite colloids, although PO , SiO , CO and dissolved organic matter were present in the effluent during ferrihydrite colloid formation. Furthermore, no subsequent release of As from the ferrihydrite colloids was observed despite the presence of these (in)organic species known to compete with As for adsorption on Fe oxides. Arsenic was bound via inner-sphere complexation on the ferrihydrite surface. FTIR spectroscopy also revealed adsorption of PO and polymerized silica. However, these species could not impede the quantitative association of As with colloidal ferrihydrite in the soil effluents. ► Ferrihydrite (Fh) colloids precipitated from a solution derived from soil. ► Arsenic that was discharged from soil entirely associated with these colloids. ► Arsenic was strongly bound to the Fh surface via inner-sphere complexation. ► A complexation of As by organic species discharged from soil was not detected. ► (In)organic solutes in the solution from soil could not impede the As–Fh association. Natural concentrations of competing (in)organic species in soil-derived solutions do not impede the strong and quantitative association between As and colloidal ferrihydrite.
    Keywords: Iron Hydroxide ; Phosphate ; Silicate ; Carbonate ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 2017, Vol.39(2), pp.331-344
    Description: Central European floodplain soils are often contaminated with potentially toxic metals. The prediction of their aqueous concentrations is a prerequisite for an assessment of environmental concerns. We tested the aqueous concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) derived from multi-surface adsorption modelling (on hydrous iron, aluminum and manganese oxides, clay and soil organic matter) against those analyzed in situ in the soil solution of four horizons of floodplain soils at the Elbe River, Germany. The input data for the reactive metals were derived from a seven-step sequential extraction scheme or from extraction with 0.43 M nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and evaluated in four modelling scenarios. In all scenarios, measured and modelled concentrations were positively related, except partially for Pb. Close reproduction of the measured data was obtained using measured data of accompanying cations and anions together with amounts of reactive metals from both the sequential extraction or from 0.43 M HNO 3 extraction, except for Cu, which was often strongly overestimated, and partially Cd. We recommend extraction with 0.43 M HNO 3 to quantify reactive metals in soil because the modelling results were metal-specific with better or equal results using the single extractant, the application of which is also less laborious. Approximations of ion concentrations and water contents yielded similar results. Modelled solid-phase speciation of metals varied with pH and differed from that from sequential extraction. Multi-surface modelling may be an effective tool to predict both aqueous concentrations and solid-phase speciation of metals in soil.
    Keywords: Multi-surface modelling ; Metals ; Soil contamination ; Sequential extraction ; Fluvisol
    ISSN: 0269-4042
    E-ISSN: 1573-2983
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2017, Vol.180(4), pp.491-495
    Description: Birnessite is a highly reactive manganese oxide and common in soil. We checked the attachment of birnessite, synthesized by the reduction of permanganate by lactate, on sand‐sized quartz to produce birnessite‐coated sand (BCS). Attachment and aggregation of birnessite increased with pH and reaction time. The extent of Cu and Zn adsorption to BCS was similar to that of birnessites in previous studies. Based on these results and the stability of this BCS, it may be used in water treatment.
    Keywords: Manganese Oxide ; Metal Adsorption ; Permanganate Reduction ; Water Treatment
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 2017, Vol.39(6), pp.1291-1304
    Description: European floodplain soils are frequently contaminated with potentially toxic inorganic substances. We used a multi-surface model to estimate the aqueous concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in three Mollic Fluvisols from the Central Elbe River (Germany). The model considered complexation in solution and interactions with soil organic matter (SOM), a clay mineral and hydrous Al, Fe and Mn oxides. The amounts of reactive metals were derived from extraction with 0.43 M HNO 3 . Modelling was carried out as a function of pH (soil pH ± 1.4) because it varies in floodplain soils owing to redox processes that consume or release protons. The fraction of reactive metals, which were dissolved according to the modelling, was predominantly 〈1%. Depending on soil properties, especially pH and contents of SOM and minerals of the clay fraction, the modelled concentrations partially exceeded the trigger values for the soil–groundwater pathway of the German soil legislation. This differentiation by soil properties was given for Ni, Pb and Zn. On the other hand, Cd was more mobile, i.e., the trigger values were mostly exceeded. Copper represented the opposite, as the modelling did not predict exceeding the trigger values in any horizon. Except for Pb and partially Zn (where oxides were more important), SOM was the most important adsorbent for metals. However, given the special composition and dynamics of SOM in mollic horizons, we suggest further quantitative and qualitative investigations on SOM and on its interaction with metals to improve the prediction of contaminant dynamics.
    Keywords: Floodplain soil ; Metals ; Soil contamination ; Adsorption ; Multi-surface modelling
    ISSN: 0269-4042
    E-ISSN: 1573-2983
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 2002, Vol.36(19), pp.4877-4883
    Description: Blast furnace sludge is a waste originating from pig iron production and contains small amounts of iron-cyanide complexes. Leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from deposited blast furnace sludge into the ground water seems to be possible in principle. We investigated the sorption of the iron-cyanide complexes ferrocyanide, [Fe super(II)(CN) sub(6)] super(4-), and ferricyanide, [Fe super(III)(CN) sub(6)] super(3-), in 22 samples of deposited blast furnace sludge in batch experiments. Subsequently, desorption of iron-cyanide complexes was investigated using 1 M NaCl. Sorption in five samples was evaluated with Langmuir isotherms. The blast furnace sludge samples were neutral to slightly alkaline (pH 7.6-9) and consisted of X-ray amorphous compounds and crystalline Fe oxides primarily. X-ray amorphous compounds are assumed to comprise coke-bound C and amorphous Fe, Zn, and Al oxides. The experiments that were evaluated with Langmuir isotherms indicated that the extent of ferricyanide sorption was higher than that of ferrocyanide sorption. Saturation of blast furnace sludge with iron-cyanide complexes was achieved. Sorption of iron-cyanide complexes in 22 blast furnace sludge samples at one initial concentration showed that 12 samples sorbed more ferrocyanide than ferricyanide. The extent of sorption largely differed between 0.07 and 2.76 mu mol [Fe(CN) sub(6)]m super(-2) and was governed by coke-bound C. Ferricyanide sorption was negatively influenced by crystalline Fe oxides additionally. Only small amounts of iron-cyanide complexes sorbed in blast furnace sludge were desorbed by 1 M NaCl (ferrocyanide, 3.2%; ferricyanide, 1.1%, given as median). This indicated strong interactions of iron-cyanide complexes in blast furnace sludge. The mobility of iron-cyanide complexes in deposited blast furnace sludge and consequently contamination of the seepage and ground water was designated as low, because (i) deposited blast furnace sludge is able to sorb iron-cyanide complexes strongly, (ii) the solubility of the iron-cyanide-containing phase, K sub(2)Zn sub(3)[Fe super(II)(CN) sub(6)] times 9H sub(2)O, is known to be low, and (iii) a worst case scenario of the transport of iron-cyanide complexes within the blast furnace sludge deposit indicated strong retardation of the complexes within the next 100 years.
    Keywords: Iron–Cyanide Complexes ; Sorption ; Desorption ; Blast Furnace Sludge ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 15 January 2011, Vol.45(2), pp.527-33
    Description: In soil and water, ferrihydrite frequently forms in the presence of dissolved organic matter. This disturbs crystal growth and gives rise to coprecipitation of ferrihydrite and organic matter. To compare the chemical fractionation of organic matter during coprecipitation with the fractionation involved in adsorption onto pristine ferrihydrite surfaces we prepared ferrihydrite-organic matter associations by adsorption and coprecipitation using (i) a forest-floor extract or (ii) a sulfonated lignin. The reaction products were studied by (13)C CPMAS NMR, FTIR, and analysis of hydrolyzable neutral polysaccharides. Relative to the original forest-floor extract, the ferrihydrite-associated organic matter was enriched in polysaccharides, especially when adsorption took place. Moreover, mannose and glucose were bound preferentially to ferrihydrite, while fucose, arabinose, xylose, and galactose accumulated in the supernatant. This fractionation of sugar monomers was more pronounced during coprecipitation and led to an enhanced ratio of (galactose + mannose)/(arabinose + xylose). Experiments with lignin revealed that the ferrihydrite-associated material was enriched in its aromatic components but had a lower ratio of phenolic C to aromatic C than the original lignin. A compositional difference between the adsorbed and coprecipitated lignin is obvious from a higher contribution of methoxy C in the coprecipitated material. Coprecipitated organic matter may thus differ in amount and composition from adsorbed organic matter.
    Keywords: Chemical Fractionation ; Chemical Precipitation ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry ; Organic Chemicals -- Chemistry ; Soil Pollutants -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2009-12-01, 2009卷 (Issue 2009), pp.89-94
    Description: The potentially toxic Fe-CN complexes ferricyanide, [ Fe III ( CN ) 6 ] 3 − , and ferrocyanide, [ Fe II ( CN ) 6 ] 4 − , undergo a variety of redox processes in soil, which affect their mobility. We carried out microcosm experiments with suspensions of a humic topsoil (pH 5.3; C org 107 g kg - 1 ) to which we added ferricyanide (20 mg l - 1 ). We varied the redox potential ( E H ) from −280 to 580 mV by using O 2 , N 2 and glucose. The decrease of E H led to decreasing concentrations of Fe-CN complexes and partial reductive dissolution of (hydrous) Fe and Mn oxides. The dynamics of aqueous Fe-CN concentrations was characterized by decreasing concentrations when the pH rose and the E H dropped. We attribute these dependencies to adsorption on organic surfaces, for which such a pH/ E H behavior has been shown previously. Adsorption was reversible, because when the pH and E H changed into the opposite direction, desorption occurred. This study demonstrates the possible impact of soil organic matter on the fate of Fe-CN complexes in soil.
    Keywords: Agriculture;
    ISSN: 1687-7667
    E-ISSN: 16877675
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2006, Vol.169(3), pp.335-340
    Description: Ferricyanide, [Fe(CN)], is an anthropogenic and potentially toxic contaminant in soil. Its adsorption on goethite has been previously studied, but not evaluated with a surface complexation model (SCM) considering the effects of pH and ionic strength. Therefore, we carried out batch experiments with ferricyanide and goethite suspensions with different ferricyanide concentrations (0.075 mM and 0.15 mM), ionic strengths (0.01 and 0.1 M), and pH (ranging from 4 to 7.4). Adsorption data were then interpreted with the 1‐p Stern and the charge distribution model assuming monodentate inner‐sphere ferricyanide surface complexes on goethite (lg = 10.6), which are known from infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, we applied the SCM to ferricyanide adsorption in previous studies on ferricyanide adsorption in the presence of sulfate and on the solubility of Fe‐cyanide complexes in a suspension of a loess loam. The SCM correctly reflected ferricyanide adsorption in the batch experiments as well as the effects of pH and ionic strength. The SCM also described ferricyanide adsorption in the presence of sulfate, because the ferricyanide adsorption measured and that modeled were significantly correlated ( = 0.80). Furthermore, we applied the SCM to a study on the solubility of Fe‐cyanide complexes in soil under varying redox conditions so that ferricyanide adsorption on goethite and precipitation of Fe‐cyanide complexes were considered. The actual ferricyanide concentrations were rather reflected when applying the SCM compared to those modeled in an approach in which exclusively precipitation was taken into account. We conclude that ferricyanide adsorption on goethite should be included into geochemical modeling approaches on the mobility of Fe‐cyanide complexes in subsoils.
    Keywords: Ferricyanide ; Goethite ; Adsorption ; Surface Complexation Modeling ; Adsorption Mechanism
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2003, Vol.166(2), pp.204-209
    Description: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils is partially adsorbed when passing through a soil profile. In most adsorption studies, water soluble organic matter extracted by water or dilute salt solutions is used instead of real DOM gained by lysimeters or ceramic suction cups. We investigated the adsorption of DOM gained from three compartments (forest floor leachate and soil solution from 20 cm (Bg horizon) and 60 cm depth (2Bg horizon)) on the corresponding clay and fine silt fractions ( Bg 〉 2Bg. Dissolved organic matter in the 2Bg horizon can be regarded as slightly reactive, because adsorption was low. Desorption of DOM from the subsoil samples was reflected more realistically with a non‐linear regression approach than with initial mass isotherms. The results show that the extent of DOM adsorption especially in subsoils is controlled by the composition and by the origin of the DOM used as adsorptive rather than by the mineralogical composition of the soil or by contents of soil organic matter. We recommend to use DOM gained when investigating the fate of DOM in subsoils. Adsorption “wirklich” gelöster organischer Substanz an die Ton‐ und Feinschluff‐Fraktionen eines Pseudogleys unter Wald Die gelöste organische Substanz (DOM) in Böden unterliegt bei der Passage eines Bodenprofils Adsorptionsprozessen. In den meisten Adsorptionsstudien wurde wasserlösliche organische Substanz, die mit Wasser oder einer verdünnten Salzlösung extrahiert wurde, anstelle von realer, mit Lysimetern oder keramischen Saugkerzen gewonnener DOM benutzt. Wir untersuchten die Adsorption von in drei Kompartimenten gewonnener DOM (Auflagenperkolat und Bodenlösung aus 20 cm (Sw‐Horizont) und 60 cm Tiefe (IISd‐Horizont)) an die korrespondierenden Ton‐ und Feinschluff‐Fraktionen ( Sw 〉 IISd ab. Gelöste organische Substanz im IISd‐Horizont kann als schwach reaktiv angesehen werden, da die Adsorption gering war. Die Desorption von DOM aus Unterbodenproben wurde von einem nicht‐linearen Regressionsansatz realistischer wieder gegeben als mit der Initial‐mass‐Isotherme. Adsorption und Desorption von Sulfat und Fluorid weisen auf unterschiedliche Adsorptionsprozesse in den jeweiligen Horizonten hin. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Zusammensetzung und die Herkunft der als Adsorptiv benutzten DOM das Ausmaß der DOM‐Adsorption insbesondere in Unterböden steuert, weniger die mineralogische Zusammensetzung des Bodens oder die Gehalte an organischer Bodensubstanz. Bei Untersuchungen zum Verbleib von DOM in Unterböden empfehlen wir die Verwendung von gewonnener DOM.
    Keywords: Stagnic Gleysol ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Adsorption ; Clay Fraction ; Fine Silt Fraction
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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